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谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义

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谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义

  初级英文文法 Ⅰ

  初级英文文法 Ⅰ

  Unit 1 名词、冠词 ---------------------1

  1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  名词的种类 名词的数 名词的所有格 冠词

  Unit 2 be 动词、一般动词的现在式--------------------3

  1. be动词的现在式-am、are、is

  2. 一般动词的现在式

  3. 一般动词的否定句

  Unit 3 be动词 、一般动词的过去式--------------------------5 1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5.

  6. be动词的过去式 be动词(过去式)的否定句 be动词(过去式)的疑问句 一般动词的过去式 一般动词(过去式)的否定句 一般动词(过去式)的疑问句

  Unit 4 代名词------------------------7

  1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5. 人称代名词 所有代名词 反身代名词 指示代名词 不定代名词

  Unit 5 时态 --------------------12

  1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  5. 现代简单式 过去简单式 现在进行式 过去进行式 未来式

  Unit 6 WH问句、祈使句、感叹句-------------------15

  1. WH问句

  2. 祈使句

  3. 感叹句

  Unit 1 名词、冠词

  名词,用来表示人或事物、动物,能做为主语、补语、受词。其中可计数的,称为可数名词;不可计数的,称为不可数名词。

  1. 名词的种类

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义1

  表示具有一定形状的个体,为可数名词,有单数/复数之分。

  例:book(书)、pencil(铅笔)、dog(狗)、spaceship(太空船)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义2

  等。

  表示一个单位的群体,或者表示被视做整体的人、事、物的集合体。

  例:class(班级;班上的同学)、family(家庭;家人)、audience(听众)等。

  例 1. My family is large. 我家是一个大家庭。

  2. My family are all early risers.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义3

  我的家人都起得早。

  如人名、地名等,用来表示其一特定的名称。无冠词,第一个字母须大写。

  例:Bob(鲍伯)、Smith(史密斯)、April(四月)、London(伦敦)??等。

  ※下列专有名词需要加上定冠词the 。

  例the United States(美国)、The United Nations(

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义4

  联合国)

  表示不具有一定形状的物质名词,如材料、食物、气体、液体等。一律用单数,但前面不加a

  或an。

  例:glass(玻璃)、wood(木头)、paper(纸)、butter(奶油)、fruit(水果)、meat(肉)、sugar(糖)、air(空气)、gas(瓦斯)、water(水)等。

  ※物质名词在计算数量时,用容器或度量衡的单位来表示。即:数字+容器(度量衡)+of+物质名词

  例:1. a loaf of bread (一条面包) 2. a cup of coffee (一杯咖啡)

  3. a sheet of paper (一张纸) 4.a spoonful of sugar (一匙糖)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义5

  表示观念、性质、动作、过程、状态等。原则上与“数”无关。前面不加a或an,没有复数形

  式。

  例:beauty(美丽)、honesty(诚实)、love(爱)、patience(耐心)、happiness(幸福)、music(音乐)等。

  2. 名词的数

  表示人或事物的名词中,有一些是可以计数的。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义6

  个数只有一个的情形,称之为单数;个数超过一个时,称之为复数。

  ◎名词字尾加S——大部分名词

  例:dog-dogs (狗) book-books (书) girl-girls (女孩)

  ◎名词字尾为s 、sh、ch、x、o→加es

  例:class-classes (班级) bus-buses (公交车) dish-dishes (盘子)

  bench-benches (长凳) box-boxes (盒子)

  注意:名词字尾为子音+o时,复数名词加es,如tomatoes(蕃茄)。但有例外,如photos(照片),pianos(钢琴)等。

  ◎名词字尾为子音+y→去y+ies

  例:baby-babies (婴儿) story-stories (故事) city-cities (城市) lady-ladies (女士)

  ◎名词字尾为f或fe→去f或fe+ves

  例:leaf-leaves (叶子) wife-wives (老婆) knife-knives (刀子)

  1

  ※handkerchiefs(手帕),chiefs(领袖),roofs(屋顶)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义7

  ◎名词字尾加en,ren

  例:ox-oxen (公牛) child-children (小孩)

  ◎改变元音

  例:man-men (男人) woman-women (女人) goose-geese (鹅)

  tooth-teeth (牙齿) mouse-mice (老鼠)

  ◎单复数同形

  例:fish-fish (鱼) deer-deer (鹿) sheep-sheep (绵羊)

  Chinese-Chinese (中国人) Japanese-Japanese(日本人)

  3. 名词的所有格

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义8

  ◎单数名词→名词's

  例:the boy's schoolbag (男孩的书包) Joan's dress (Joan的洋装)

  ◎复数名词→名词s'

  例:a girls' school (一所女校) these students' teacher (这些学生的老师) ◎字尾非S的复数名词→名词's

  例:children's playground (小孩的游乐园) women's activities (女性的活动)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义9

  ◎共同所有格及个别所有格

  ??共同所有格?名词?名词?...?名词's

  ?个别所有格?名词's?名词's?...?名词's

  例:1. Harry and Bill's father is a scientist. (Harry和Bill的父亲是一位科学家。)

  2. Harry's and Bill's fathers are scientists. (Harry和Bill的父亲都是科学家。) ◎(无)生物所有格:A的B→B of A

  例:1. 桌子的脚

  the legs of the table

  2. 车门(车子的门)

  the door of the car

  3. 女孩的名字

  the girl's name

  the name of the girl

  ◎所有格之后的名词,如在句中非常容易理解时,可以省略。

  例:1. She's going to the dentist's. (她要去看牙。)

  2. I met him at barber's. (我在理发院遇到他。)

  3. We like to eat lunch at McDonald's. (我们喜欢去麦当劳吃午餐。)

  4. 冠词

  冠词可分为不定冠词a(an)及定冠词the,它通常放在名词之前,用来修饰名词。

  2

  ?a+字音开头的单数名词 aan的用法???an+母音开头的单数名词

  例:a book(一本书) a girl(一个女孩) a young man(一位年轻人)

  an apple(一个苹果) an umbrella(一把伞) an old woman(一个老女人)

  ◎a(an)的发音

  一般来说a[?],an[??],但强调“一个”时,特别加重语气可读成a[?],an[??]

  [?] [?]

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义10

  定冠词the可用来限定可数名词及不可数名词,可表示单数及复数。也可用来限定形容词。其

  在母音前,读[??];子音前则读[??]。

  例:1. Please shut the door. (请关门。)

  2. The rich aren't always happy. (有钱人并非是快乐的。)

  ※the+形容词泛指??的人,代表复数。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义11

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义12

  Unit 2 be动词一般动词的现在式

  be动词的现在式—am、are、is

  a.是(表状态

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义13

  )

  例:We are happy. (我们很高兴。)

  b.在(表存在)

  例:She is in America. (她在美国。)

  主词+be动词

  主词 be动词 例句

  第一人称 am I am a boy.

  第二人称 are You are my sons.

  第三人称.单数名词 is He is my student.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义14

  ※含有be动词(am、are、is)的肯定句变为否定句时,在be动词之后加not(不)即可。

  肯定句:主词+am(are、is)?.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义15

  否定句:主词+ am(are、is)+not?.

  例:He is a good baseball player. (他是位好的棒球员。)

  (否定句)He is not a good baseball player. (他不是位好的棒球员。)

  = He's not a good baseball player.

  =He isn't a good baseball player.

  ※含有be动词(am、are、is)的肯定句变为疑问句时,将be动词拿到主词前,句尾加(?)即可。

  肯定句:主词+am(are、is)?.

  疑问句:Am(Are、Is)+主词??

  3

  例:l. That is his camera. (那是他的照相机。)

  (疑问句) Is that his camera? (那是他的照相机吗?)

  2. The girl is a junior high school student. (那女孩是国中生。)

  (疑问句) Is the girl a junior high school student? (那女孩是国中生吗?)

  ※be动词开头的疑问句,可用yes或no回答。而答句中的主词,须用代名词。

  (问句) Am (Are、Is)+主词??

  (答句) Yes,主词+am(are、is)

  No,主词+am(are、is)

  例:1. Is that man your math teacher? (那个人是你们的数学老师吗?)

  (答句) Yes, he is. / No, he's not.

  (是,他是。/ 不,他不是。)

  2. Are you eating your lunch? (你正在吃你的午餐吗?)

  (答句) Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.

  (是,我是。/ 不,我不是。)

  一般动词的现在式

  (1) 一般动词的含义

  举凡日常生活中具体的动作,(如:吃饭→eat,走路→walk...等)及抽象的动作,(如:喜欢→like,思考→think...等)皆为一般动词。

  (2) 主词+一般动词

  现在式的句子中,主词为第三人称单数时,一般动词须加s或es。

  人称 数 单数 复数

  I like dogs. We like dogs. 第一人称

  You like dogs. You like dogs. 第二人称

  He likes dogs. They like dogs. 第三人称

  ※一般动词加s或es的方法:

  ◎大部分动词加s,其发音为[?]或[?]

  例:works、plays

  [??] [??]

  ◎一般动词字尾为o、s、sh、ch时,加es。

  例:goes [???] washes [??????] watches [???????]

  ◎一般动词字尾为子音加y时,须去y再加ies。

  例:cry→cries [????] study→studies ['??????]

  ※have和has

  have(有;吃)的单数动词为has

  1. They have a lot of money. (他们有许多钱。)

  2. He has a lot of money. (他有许多钱。)

  一般动词的否定句

  ※含有一般动词的肯定句变为否定句时,不可直接在一般动词之后加not,必须使用助动词do或does。而do或does之后必定出现原形动词。

  do→用于主词为I、you、复数。

  does→用于主词为第三人称单数。 +一般动词?

  +do/ does + not +原形动词?

  例:l. The twin brothers go to school by bus. (这对双胞胎兄弟搭公交车上学。)

  (否定句这对双胞胎兄弟不搭公交车上学。)

  4

  2. Sam has dinner at the restaurant. (Sam在那家餐厅吃晚餐。)

  (否定句不在那家餐厅吃晚餐。)

  ※比较→否定句

  a. be动词: He is my boyfriend. (他是我男朋友。)

  He isn't my boyfriend. (他不是我男朋友。)

  b. 一般动词: He likes dogs. (他喜欢狗。)

  He doesn't like dogs. (他不喜欢狗。)

  一般动词的疑问句

  ※含有一般动词的肯定句变为疑问句时,不可将一般动词拿到主词前,必须使用助动词do或does。而do或does之后,必定出现原形动词。 肯定句:主词+一般动词?

  疑问句:Do/Does+主词+原形动词??

  例:l. You visit your grandmother on Sundays. (你每逢假日探访你祖母。)

  (疑问句) Do you visit your grandmother on Sundays? (你每逢星期日探访你祖母吗?)

  2. He comes from England. (他来自英国。)

  (疑问句) Does he come from England? (他来自英国吗?)

  ※助动词do或does开头的疑问句,Yes或No之后,也须用do或does做简答。

  (问句) Do / Does+主词+原形动词??

  (答句) Yes, 主词+do/does.

  No, 主词+don't/doesn't.

  例:Does the little boy go to school? (这小男孩上学了吗?)

  (答句) Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.

  (是,他是。/ 不,没有。)

  ※比较→疑问句

  a. be动词: She is beautiful. (她是美丽的。)

  Is she beautiful? Yes, she is.

  (她美丽吗?) (是的,她是。)

  b.一般动词: She loves tennis. (她喜欢网球。)

  Does she love tennis? Yes, she does.

  (她喜欢网球吗?) (是,她喜欢。)

  Unit 3 be动词一般动词的过去式

  be动词的过去式

  was和were

  现在式 过去式

  am was is be动词

  are were

  过去式be动词表示''过去时间中发生的状态。

  1. (现在式他现在很忙。)

  (过去式他那时很忙。)

  2. (现在式我父母现在在家。)

  (过去式我父母昨天在家。)

  ※时间副词改变,动词也必须改变

  5

  be动词(过去式)的否定句

  含有be动词(was、were)的肯定句变为否定句时,在be动词之后加not (不)即可。

  肯定句:主词+was(were)...

  否定句:主词+was(were)+not...

  例:1. Mr. Brown was a vet. (Brown先生是一位兽医。)

  (否定句) Mr. Brown was not a vet. (Brown先生不是兽医。)

  = Mr. Brown wasn't a vet.

  2. Joe and Brian were in the living room at that time. (那时Joe和Brain在客厅。)

  (否定句) Joe and Brain were not in the living room at that time.

  = Joe and Brain weren't in the living room at that time. (那时Joe和Bram不在客厅。)

  be动词(过去式)的疑问句

  含有be动词(was、were)的肯定句变为疑问句时,将be动词放到主词前,句尾加问号(?)即可。

  肯定句:主词+was(were)...

  疑问句:Was(Were)+主词??

  例:1. Wendy was in the seventh grade last year. (Wendy去年是七年级。)

  (疑问句) Was Wendy in the seventh grade last year? (Wendy去年读七年级吗?)

  ※be动词开头的疑问句,可用yes或no回答。而答句中的主词,须用代名词。

  (问句) Was(Were)+主词??

  (答句) Yes, 主词+was(were).

  No, 主词+was(were)+not.

  例:Were you a pianist? (你是钢琴家吗?)

  (答句)Yes, I was. / No, I wasn't.

  (是,我是。/ 不,我不是。)

  一般动词的过去式

  一般动词的过去式,分为规则变化及不规则变化。

  (1) 规则变化→…ed

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义16

  例:help→helped (帮忙) spell→spelled (拼字) want→wanted (想要)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义17

  例:love→loved (爱) dance→danced (跳舞)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义18

  例:stop→stopped (停止) plan→planned (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义19

  计划)

  例:study→studied (读书) cry→cried(哭).

  (2) 不规则变化

  例:eat→ate (吃) read→read (读) ride→rode (骑) come→came (来)

  go→went (去) have→had (有; 吃) see→saw (看) teach→taught (教)

  give→gave (给) take→took (拿)

  例:我每天走路上学。)

  (过去式我昨天走路上学。

  妈妈每天上超巿。)

  6

  (过去式妈妈昨天早上上超巿。)

  ※主词为第三人称单数时,过去式动词不须加s

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义20

  ※含有一般动词(过去式)的肯定句变为否定句时,不可直接在一般动词之后加not,必须使用过去式助动词did(不分人称)。而did之后,必定出现原形动词。

  肯定句:主词+一般动词(过去式)?

  否定句:主词+did not+原形动词?

  例:l. He called you last night. (他昨晚打电话给你。)

  (否定句) He did not call you last night. (他昨晚没打电话给你。)

  = He didn’t call you last night.

  2. My sister and I watched TV all day yesterday. (我姊姊昨天和我看了一整天的电视。)

  (否定句) My sister and I did not watch TV all day yesterday.

  = My sister and I didn't watch TV all day yesterday. (我姊姊昨天和我并没有整天看电视。)

  比较:否定句(过去式)

  a. be动词: She was at home. (她在家。)

  She wasn't at home. (她不在家。)

  b. 一般动词: She studied English. (她学英语。)

  She didn't study English. (她没学英语。)

  一般动词(过去式)的疑问句

  ※含有一般动词(过去式)的肯定句变为疑问句时,不可将一般动词拿到主词前,必须使用过去式助动词did。而did之后,必定出现原形动词。

  肯定句:主词+一般动词(过去式)?

  疑问句:Did+主词+原形动词...?

  例:1. His friends went to that movie last week. (他的朋友上星期去看了那部电影。)

  (疑问句) Did his friends go to that movie last week? (他的朋友上星期看了那部电影吗?)

  (答句) Yes, they did. / No, they didn't.

  (是的,他们看了。/ 不,他们没看。)

  2. Grace wrote a letter to David. (Grace写了一封信给David。)

  (疑问句) Did Grace write a letter to David? (Grace写信给David了吗?)

  (答句) Yes, she did. / No, she didn't.

  (是,她写了。/ 没,她没有。)

  比较:疑问句(过去式)

  a. be动词: He was sick. (他病了。)

  Was he sick? (他病了吗?)

  b. 一般动词: He did his homework. (他做功课了。)

  Did he do his homework? (他做功课了吗?)

  Unit 4

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义21

  代名词

  人称代名词

  数

  格

  人称

  单数 主格 所有格 受格 主格 复数 所有格 受格 7

  第一人称 I my me we our us 第二人称 you your you you your you

  he his him

  第三人称 she her her they their them

  it its it

  ※ 第一人称→说话者

  第二人称→听话者

  第三人称→第一人称及第二人称话题中提到者

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义22

  主格+动词

  所有格+名词

  一般动词+受格/介系词+受格

  例:1. He likes sports. (他喜欢运动。)

  2. His friends are over there. (他的朋友们在那里。)

  3. The girl loves him very much. (那女孩非常爱她。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义23

  ◎ it可表示天候、时间、距离

  例:l. It rains a lot in Taipei in spring. (it表天候)

  (台北春天下很多雨。)

  2. It was two o'clock when he came back home. (it表时间)

  (他两点回到家。)

  3. It is five kilometers from here to the airport. (it表距离)

  (从这里到机场距离是5公里。)

  ◎ it表示某一状况→此时多半是说话的人及听话的人都能了解的特定状况。

  例:1. A: Who knocked at the door? (谁敲门?)

  B: I thought it was Jack. (我想是Jack。)

  2. It's all up to you. (一切由你决定。) 3. I like it here. (我喜欢这里。)

  4. I don't feel like it. (我不想。)

  ◎ It可以当假主词→代替一件事

  例:1. It is difficult to learn Spanish. (西班牙文很难学。)

  (假主词)

  你该说实话,这很重要。) (假主词)

  告诉他这件事是没用的。)

  (假主词)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义24

  例:1. We had a heavy rain yesterday. (昨天下了一场大雨。)

  2. You don't see many Chinese there. (在那里看不到许多中国人。)

  3. They speak English in Canada. (在加拿大说英语。)

  所有代名词

  数 单数 复数

  格

  人称 所有格 所有代名词 所有格 所有代名词

  第一人称 my mine our ours

  8

  第二人称 your yours your yours

  his his

  第三人称 her hers their theirs

  its its

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义25

  ◎ 所有代名词=所有格+名词

  例:1. Your house is bigger than mine (=my house). (你家比我家大。)

  我的脚踏车在这里,而他的在那里。) ※所有代名词所代替的名词,要与前者提到的名词单、复数相同。

  ◎ 伴随双重所有格: ??冠词、所有格?

  ?指示形容词、不定形容词???不可同时放在名词前

  例:I met one of my old friends on the way home. (我在回家途中遇到我的一位老朋友。)

  = an old friend of mine

  ◎ 名词的所有代名词=所有格

  例:My dog is black, and Jason's is white. (我的狗是黑的,而Jason的是白的。)

  = Jason's dog

  反身代名词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义26

  第一、二人称→所有格+ self(单数) / selves(复数)

  第三人称→受格+ self(单数) / selves(复数)

  单数 复数

  第一人称 myself ourselves

  第二人称 yourself yourselves

  himself

  第三人称 herself themselves

  itself

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义27

  例:l. You always talk to yourself. (你老是自言自语。)

  2. The little girl hurt herself. (这小女孩受伤了。)

  3. He can do it by himself. (他能够独自做这件事。)

  (强调句:He himself can do it.)

  4. I saw the singer himself. (我看见那位歌手本人。)

  指示代名词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义28

  ◎一般用法

  用于人或事物。离说话者距离近者用this(these);距离远者用that(those)。

  例:1. This is my mask, and that is Mary's. (这是我的面具,而那是Mary的。)

  2. Who is this? (你是谁?)→电话用语。

  Who was that on the telephone? (电话上那人是谁?)

  3. Things are easier these days. (这几天事情简单多了。)

  9

  ◎代替用法

  代替已经叙述过的字。代替单数名词用that;代替复数名词用those。但this(these)无此用法。

  例:1. The weather in Taipei is cooler than the weather in Kaohsiung.

  =The weather in Taipei is cooler than that in Kaohsiung. (台北的天气比高雄凉爽。)

  2. Her interests are different from the interests of her childhood.

  =Her interests are different from those of her childhood. (她现在的兴趣和她童年时的不同。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义29

  作为动词的受词或补语,指前面出现过的字或是句子。

  例:l. A: Will it be fine tomorrow. (明天天气好吗?)

  B: I hope so. (我希望如此。)

  (=I hope that it will be fine tomorrow.)

  2. Do you still feel sick? If so, you must see the doctor.

  (你仍然不舒服吗?如果是的话,你必须看医师。)

  3. Nancy can play the violin, and so can I. (Nancy会拉小提琴,而我也会。)

  ※She is smart. So she is. (她很聪明。她的确如此。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义30

  她很聪明。他也是。)

  有“那样的事物(人)”之意,可当代名词、形容词,也可用于单复数。

  例:1. They will plant flowers such as roses, sunflowers. (他们将种些花,例如玫瑰,向日葵。)

  2. I don't know such a man. (我不认识这样的人。)

  ※such(+a)(+形容词)+名词

  3. Have you tasted any such food before? (你以前曾经尝试过任何这样的食物吗?)

  ※such前可接all、other、another、any、few、every、no等。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义31

  一般都加the,表示“相同的??(事物)”之意。

  l. A: Can I have a cup of coffee, please? (请给我杯咖啡好吗?)

  B: Give me the same, please. (我也要咖啡。)

  2. He uses the same typewriter as I do. (他使用和我相同的打字机。)

  不定代名词

  表示不特定的人或物,或者是表示非一定数量的代名词,称作不定代名词。有时也具有形容词的用法。

  例:1. Some of the boys like English. (这些男孩当中有些喜欢英文)

  (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义32

  代名词)

  有些男孩喜欢英文)

  (形容词) one等于a/an+单数名词,用来指不特定的人或物。如果不特定的人或物是多数时,则用ones。 例:1. I have lost my watch and I have to buy one (=a watch). (我弄丢了我的表,我必须再买一只。)

  我喜欢小车胜于大车。)

  ※one = a/an+单数名词 it = the+单数名词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义33

  例:1. Here are some apples. Take one. (这里有些苹果。拿一个吧!)

  我买了一台相机。我会把它借给你。)

  用法:both(两者都),用于二个人或二个东西,常用作复数。

  All(全部;所有的)可用于人及事物。代表可数名词时,总数为三以上。也可代表不可数名词。 位置:be动词或助动词之后。

  一般动词之前。

  定冠词(the)、所有格、数词、形容词之前。

  例:1. Both of her children went to New York. (她的两个小孩都去了纽约。)

  2. I've read both these papers. (我看过这两份报纸了。)

  3. All of my money was stolen. (我的钱都被偷了。)

  4. You may take all these toys. (你可以拿所有的玩具。)

  10

  You may take them all.

  注意:both、all出现于否定句,表示“部分否定”。

  例:1. I do not know both of her parents. (她的父母亲我并非都认识。)

  = I know just one of her parents.

  2. Not all of them come from England. (他们并非都来自英国。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义34

  两者中不论哪一个都可以但是只选其中一个之意。

  neither:为both的否定。表两者都不?意指全部否定。本身为否定字,不可和not同时出现。 例:1. Do you know either of the visitor? (你认识这两位访客中的任何一位吗?)

  2. I don't like both hats. (这两顶帽子我并非都喜欢。)

  I like neither of the hats. (这两顶帽子我都不喜欢。)

  ※either, neither也有副词用法。

  例:Bill didn't come to my party, and ken didn't, either. (=and neither did Ken.)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义35

  没来参加我的派对,而Ken也没有。)

  一般而言,some用于肯定句,any用于否定句,疑问句及条件句。可代替可数名词及不可数名词。 例:1. Some of the boys were late. (这些男孩当中有些迟到了。)

  2. Some of my money was stolen from my purse. (我皮夹里有些钱被偷了。)

  3. Please lend me some money if you have any. (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义36

  如果你有钱的话,请借我一点。)

  你有杂志可读吗?)

  other: 表其它(人、事物)之意,其复数为others。

  another: 从an + other衍生而来,表示不特定的另一个别的人、事物,无复数形。

  例:1. I have two students. (我有两个学生。)

  One is short; the other is tall. (一位矮个子;另一个高个子。)

  2. I have three flowers. (我有三朵花。)

  One is red; the others are yellow. (一朵红的;其它黄的。)

  One is red; another is yellow; the other is pink. (一朵红的;另一朵黄的;还有一朵粉红的。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义37

  )

  3. I don't like this one;

  show me another. (让我看另一个。)

  show me the other.(“两个之中”让我看另一个。)

  4. Some of the boys are here, but where are the others? (有些男孩在这里,但其它人呢?)

  5. Some people said yes and others said no. (有些人说是,其它的说不。)

  比较:

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义38

  none:可表示人或事物,可用于可数名词及不可数名词。

  several:表示“数个(物),数个(人)”,只用于可数名词的复数。

  11

  most:表示“大部分人(事物)”,可用于可数名词的复数, 或不可数名词,通常前面不加冠词the。 例:1. None of the telephones is (或are) working. (这些电话中没有一支可用。)

  2. Several of my friends attended the meeting. (我的朋友中有几位参加了会议。)

  3. Most of it is true. (大部分是眞的。)

  4. Most of the people know it. (大部分人都知道这件事。)

  ※most可当形容词,为many, much的最高级,前面可加冠词the。

  例:1. Who got the most New Year's cards? (谁收到最多新年卡?)

  2. She is the most beautiful girl that I've ever seen. (她是我看过最美的女孩。)

  Units 5 时态

  现代简单式

  动词形式:be动词:am / are / is

  一般动词:主词为第三人称单数,一般动词加s。

  时间副词:now (现在)、every+时间(每天??)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义39

  ◎表示现在的状态或动作

  例:1. There are many visitors in the zoo. (动物园里有许多游客。)

  2. Here comes the bus. (公交车来了。)

  ◎表示现在习惯性的动作

  例:1. David often sleeps during class. (David常在上课时睡觉。)

  2. My parents take exercise in the park every morning. (我父母每天早上在公园做运动。)

  ◎表示不变的事实、真理

  例:The earth moves around the sun.(地球绕着太阳转。)

  过去简单式

  动词形式:be动词:was /were

  一般动词:过去式动词,分为规则变化及不规则变化。

  时间副词:yesterday昨天

  yesterday morning (afternoon, evening) 昨天早上(下午、晚上)

  the day before yesterday前天

  last+时间(上?)

  例:last week上星期 last night昨天晚上 last year去年

  时间+ago (?前)

  例:two hours ago (二小时前) five days ago (五天前)

  before以前

  then(=at that time)那时

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义40

  ◎表示过去的动作或状态

  例:1. I bought this yesterday. (我昨天买了这个。)

  2. There was an old temple over there. (那里以前有座古庙。)

  ◎表示过去习惯性的动作

  例:My father used to smoke, but now he doesn't. (我父亲以前常吸烟,但现在不抽了。)

  现在进行式

  12

  动词形式:be动词(am, are, is)+V-ing

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义41

  原形动词+ing→大部分动词

  例:talk→talking say→saying speak→speaking

  原形动词字尾有e→去e + ing

  例:have→having write→writing come→coming

  原形动词为子音+短母音+子音→重复字尾+ing

  例:put→putting cut→cutting swim→swimming

  例:We are eating breakfast. (我们现在正在吃早餐。)

  比较:1. We ate breakfast before going to school. (我们上学前已经吃过早餐。)

  2. We eat breakfast every morning. (我们每天早上吃早餐。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义42

  )

  ◎表示现在正在进行的动作。

  例:John is watching the baseball game on television. (John正在看电视上的棒球赛。)

  ◎表不重复发生的动作。常伴随着always, all the time, again and again等副词或副词词组。

  例:l. He is always complaining. (他老是抱怨。)

  2. The car is breaking down all the time. (这辆车老是故障。)

  ◎表示最近的未来即将发生的动作。此用法常用于某些动词, 如:come, go, start, leave, arrive等。

  例:1. I'm leaving for Kenting tomorrow. (我明天前往垦丁。)

  2. My boyfriend is coming to see me this afternoon. (我男朋友今天下午即将来看我。)

  注意:某些动词不可用于进行式中。

  ? 表感官的动词→see, hear, smell等。

  ? 表情感的动词→love,like等。

  ? 其它→have, know等

  例:I'm seeing the bird in the tree. ( )

  I'm looking at the bird in the tree. (√) (我正在看树上的那只鸟。)

  过去进行式

  动词的形式:was(were)+V-ing

  例:He was playing frisbee in the park then. (那时他正在公园玩飞盘。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义43

  )

  ◎表示过去某一时点正在进行的动作。

  例:l. We were playing chess at eight yesterday evening. (昨晚8点我们正在下棋。)

  2. Lily was talking a bath when the doorbell rang. (门铃响时Lily正在洗澡。)

  ◎表示过去时间某一期限中,反复性的动作。

  例:1. Whenever I visited him, he was watching TV. (无论何时我去看他,他都在看电视。)

  2. In those days, we were getting up at six o'clock. (在那些日子,我们都六点起床。)

  末来式

  未来式用来表示发生于未来的动作或状态,常用be going to或will。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义44

  ◎be going to的涵义

  be gomg to在用于表现未来时,常表示用于实现性非常高的事或事先计划好的行为。

  13

  tomorrow明天

  tomorrow morning (afternoon, evening )明天早上(下午、晚上)

  the day after tomorrow后天

  next+时间(下?)

  例:next week (下星期) next year (明年)

  in+时间 在?(时间)后

  例:in a few days在几天后 in a week在一周之后

  例:l. I'm going to visit my uncle tomorrow. (明天我要去探望我叔叔。)

  2. I have to buy the ladder because I'm going to paint the house.

  (我必须买个楼梯,因为我打算油漆房子。)

  3. I don't feel good; I'm afraid I'm going to be sick. (我觉得不舒服;恐怕我要生病了。)

  4. Are they going to have a party on Cristmas Eve? (圣诞前夕他们打算开派对吗?)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义45

  ◎will+原形动词

  will为表示未来的助动词,且不分人称,其后须接原形动词。

  例:l. We will leave junior high school soon. (不久我们将自国中毕业。)

  =We are going to leave junior high school soon.

  =We are leaving junior high school soon.

  2. I will be fifteen years old next year. (明年我就15岁了。)

  (≠ I am going to be fifteen years old next year.)

  ※年龄不须事先计划,所以不可用be going to。

  3. A: I can't move the large box. (我搬不动这大箱子。)

  B: I’ll do it for you. (我来帮你。)

  (≠ I am going to do it for you.)

  ※很明显地,这并不是事先计划好的行为,所以不可用be going to。

  4. I will not change my mind. (我将不改变主意。)

  = I'll not change my mind.

  = I won't change my mind.

  5. Will people live on Mars in the future? (人类未来会在火星上生存吗?)

  ◎Will you??

  Will you?另外可表示请求或邀约。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义46

  Will you??

  回答:Sure. / Ok. / All right.

  No, I can't. / I'm sorry. I can't.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义47

  Will you??

  回答:Yes, thank you. / Yes, please.

  No, thank you.

  例:1. Will you look after the baby for me? (请你替我照顾这宝宝好吗?)

  →Sure. (没问题。)

  →I'm sorry, but I can't. (抱歉,我不能。)

  2. Will you have another cup of coffee? (你要再来杯咖啡吗?)

  →Yes, please. (请再给我一杯。)

  →No, thank you. (不,谢谢。)

  14

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义48

  Unit 6 WH问句、祈使句、感叹句

  WH问句

  疑问词(Wh~及how)为首的疑问句,称为WH问句,而疑问词可分为疑问代名词,疑问副词及疑问形容词。

  疑问代名词:what、who、which、whose。

  疑问副词:when、where、why、how。

  疑问形容词:what、whose、which。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义49

  ◎疑问词当主词

  句型:疑问词+动词~?

  例:l. Who is cooking in the kitchen? Kate and Mary are. (谁在厨房做饭?是Kate和Mary。)

  2. What is there under your bed? (你床底下有什么?)

  ※疑问词当主词时,视为单数,其后接单数动词。

  ◎疑问词当补语

  句型:疑问词+be动词+主词~?

  例:1. Whose are these toys? (这些玩具是谁的?)

  2. Who is that tall boy? (那高个子男孩是谁?)

  ◎疑问词当受词

  句型:疑问词+助动词+主词+原形动词~?

  例:Which do you want to take? (你想要拿哪一个?)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义50

  句型:疑问词+ be动词+主词~?

  助动词+主词+原形动词~?

  例:1. When are you leaving America? (你何时离开美国?)

  2. Where do you come from? (你来自哪里?)

  3. Why is he absent? (他为何缺席了?)

  4. How did you come here? (你如何到这里?)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义51

  句型:疑问词+名词+ be动词+主词~?

  助动词+主词+原形动词~?

  例:1. Which one do you like best? (你最喜欢哪一个?)

  2. Whose house is this? (这是谁的房子?)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义52

  例:1. — What time is it? (现在几点?)

  — It's eight -ten. (现在8点10分。)

  2. — What day is it? (今天星期几?)

  — It's Sunday. (今天星期日。)

  3. — What date is it? (今天几月几日?)

  — It's October 10. (今天10月10日。)

  4. — What's the weather like today? (今天天气如何?)

  = How's the weather today?

  — It's cold. (很冷。)

  5. — How old will you be next year? (你明年几岁?)

  — I'll be ten. (我明年10岁。)

  15

  6. — How tall are you? (你多高)

  — I'm 160 centimeters tall. (我160公分。) / I'm five feet three inches tall. (我5呎3吋高。)

  7. — How high is Mt.Everast? (圣母峰有多高?)

  — It's 8848meters high. (高8848公尺。)

  8. How many cups of coffee do you drink every day? (你每天喝几杯咖啡?)

  9. How much coffee do you drink every day? (你每天喝多少咖啡?)

  10. — How long will you stay in Taipei? (你将在台北待多久?)

  ― For two weeks. (2星期)

  11. — How long is the rope? (这条绳子多长?)

  — It's two meters long. (2公尺。)

  12. — How often do you play tennis? (你多久打一次网球?)

  — Once a month. (一个月一次。)

  13. — How far is it from here to the post office? (从这里到邮局有多远?)

  — It's about ten minutes' walk. (走路大约10分钟。)

  祈使句

  表希望、请求、命令的句子,称为祈使句。

  一般祈使句→原形动词~

  否定祈使句→Don't(Never)+原形动词~

  邀请祈使句→Let's+原形动词~

  例:1. Be quiet, please. (请安静。)

  2. Please stop talking and listen to me. (请不要讲话听我说。)

  = Will you please stop talking and listen to me?

  3. Don't drink before you drive. (开车前勿喝酒。)

  4. Never make the same mistake again. (别再犯同样的错误。)

  5. Let's go for a walk. (咱们去散步吧。)

  Yes, let's. / No, let's not.

  (好的。) / (不,不要。)

  比较:Let's play outside. (咱们一起去外面玩吧!)

  Let us play outside. (拜托你让我们去外面玩。)

  感叹句

  表惊讶、惊喜、感动、难过等意思,并带有赞叹或感叹意味的句子,为感叹句。 句型:What +a (an)+形容词+名词+ (主词+动词)!

  How+形容词(副词)+ (主词+动词)!

  例:l. What a beautiful dress (this is)! (这件洋装好美啊!)

  = How beautiful this dress is!

  2. How interesting this novel is! (这本小说好有趣啊!)

  3. How fast he runs! (他跑的好快呀!)

  4. What a day! 多棒(坏)的一天呀!

  感叹句中,有时会将形容词省略,听者必须依照说话者谈话的内容或表情来判断其涵义。 比较:直述句:You are a very good girl. (你是很棒的女孩。)

  祈使句:Be a very good girl. (当个乖女孩。)

  感叹句:What a good girl you are! (你真是一位很棒的女孩!)

  谢孟媛初级英文文法 2

  16

  1. 比较变化

  2. 形容词的比较级

  3. 形容词的最高级

  4. 副词的比较级、最高级 不定词

  动名词

  分词

  形容词

  副词

  动词

  Unit 1 比较17

  比较变化

  为了表示性质、程度等差异,形容词在字形上所做的变化,称为比较。比较分为原级、比较级、最高级。

  (1)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义53

  (2)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义54

  2. As for French and German, the latter is more difficult for me than the former.

  (就法文和德文而言,我觉得后者比前者难。)

  形容词的比较级

  (1) 比较级… than…

  例:1. Your article is longer than mine. (你的文章比我长。)

  2. Mary is more beautiful than she/her. (口语) (玛丽比她漂亮。)

  (2) the+比较级…of the two…

  例:1. Kevin is the older of the two boys. (Kevin是两位男孩中年纪较大的。)

  2. Jack is the more active of the twins. (Jack是这对双胞胎中较活跃的。)

  (3) 修饰比较级

  much, a lot, far+比较级→?得多了

  even+比较级→?更加

  a little+比较→?一点

  例:1. He is much busier than I. (他比我忙碌得多了。)

  2. This is a little cheaper than that. (这个比那个便宜一点。)

  3. The price of the blue pants is far higher than that of the green pants.

  (蓝裤子的价格比绿裤子的价格高得多。)

  4. The weather in Kaohsiung is far hotter than that in Taipei.

  18

  =The weather is far hotter in Kaohsiung than in Taipei.

  (高雄的天气比台北的天气更加炎热。)

  注意:比较时,若主题相同或语意上清楚明白时,than以下部分可省略。

  例:They live a more pleasant life than (they did) before. (他们现在比以前过着更愉快的生活。)

  (4) 比较级…to…

  junior (年幼的)、senior (年长的)、major (大的)、minor (小的)等形容词,在表示比较的对象时,不用than而用to。

  例:She is two years older than I / me.

  =She is senior to me by two years. (她比我大2岁。)

  (5) 比较级的惯用表现

  a. 比较级and比较级 越来越??

  例:The story became more and more interesting. (这故事变得越来越有趣。)

  b. the比较,the比较级 越??越??

  例:l. The more, the better. (越多越好。)

  2. The more we get, the happier we'll be. (我们得到越多就越快乐。)

  c. more than超过

  less than少于

  例:The man is more than / over eighty years old. (这个人超过80岁。)

  形容词的最高级

  (l)~the最高级+名词+ 地点 / of the three… / of all

  例:1. Helen is the best student of all. (海伦是所有学生中最好的。)

  2. Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. (圣母峰是世界上最高的山。)

  (2)原级、比较级、最高级互换

  例:1. Taipei is the biggest city in Taiwan. (台北是台湾最大的城市。)

  =Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan.

  =Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan.

  =No other city in Taiwan is bigger than Taipei.

  =No other cities in Taiwan are as big as Taipei.

  注意:加other (其它的),其功用为避免和本身做比较。 纽约比美国任何其它城市大。) 纽约比台湾任何城巿大。)

  (3)as原级as →像…一样

  例:1. This jacket is as expensive as this sweater. (这件夹克和这件毛衣一样贵。)

  2. Your hair is as long as mine. (你的头发和我的一样长。)

  注意:否定句时,也可用not so / as ~ as..

  例:This question is not as / so, difficult as it seems. (这问题并不像表面上的那么困难。)

  副词的比较级、最高级

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义55

  a.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义56

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义57

  b. 19

  ◎副词的比较级+than

  例:l. He can sing better than Lisa. (他可以唱的比莉萨好。)

  2. I study harder than my friends. (我比我的朋友们更努力。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义58

  ◎the副词的最高级+地点/ of the three→副词的最高级,the可以省略。

  例:l. My father gets up (the) earliest of us all. (我父亲是我们之中最早起的。)

  2. Cathy dances (the) most beautifully. (卡西是跳舞跳得最美的。)

  注意:形容词和副词的不同

  例:Tom is the fastest boy of all. →形容词的最高级,the不可省略。(汤姆是所有男孩中最快的。)

  Tom runs (the) fastest of all. →副词的最高级,the可以省略。(汤姆是所有男孩中跑得最快的。) ◎疑问词+比较

  例:l. Which fruit do you like better, apples or oranges? (你比较喜欢哪一种水果,苹果或是柳橙?)

  2. Which do you like (the) best, apples, oranges or peaches? (苹果、柳橙和桃子,你最喜欢哪一种?) 注意:两者之间用比较级;三者 (或以上)用最高级。

  Unit 2 不定词

  不定词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义59

  (to+原形动词),其身份不再是动词。它在句中扮演名词、形容词及副词的功能。 to V

  1. 名词用法→当主词、受词、补语

  例:To buy things in a flea market must be fun. (在跳蚤市场买东西一定很好玩。)

  2. 形容词用法→修饰名词

  例:I have a lot of things to buy. (我有很多东西要买。)

  3. 副词用法→表目的、原因等。

  例:I went there to buy notebooks. (我去那里买笔记本。)

  对我而言回答这个问题是困难的。)

  注意:不定词放句首当主词时,视为一件事,其后须接单数动词。

  2. To solve pollution problems is difficult for people in Taiwan.

  →It is difficult for people in Taiwan to solve pollution problems.

  (对台湾民众而言,要解决污染问题是困难的。)

  注意:不定词为首的主词,可用it (假主词)代替,再将此事件放置在后说明。

  3. To be patient with others is best for you. (你对别人有耐心是最好的。)

  →It is best for you to be patient with others.

  ※句型:It’s +形容词 (修饰事物)+for +人+ to +原形动词?

  It's +形容词 (修饰人)+of+人+ to +原形动词?

  20

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义60

  修饰人的形容词:good, nice, kind, brave, clever, careless, honest, bad, stupid, silly, selfish, polite…等 例:1. It's kind of you to help me. (你真好帮我的忙。)

  2. It's stupid of him to speak ill of others. (他说别人坏话是愚蠢的。)'

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义61

  )

  2. He hoped to be there on time. (他希望准时到那里。)

  注意:有些动词,如decide,hope,want,expect,volunteer等,必用不定词当受词。

  3. I want / would like to see a movie with my friend. (我想要和我的朋友一起看电影。)

  4. You needn't go if you don't want to. (你不需要去,如果你不想去的话。)

  注意:to后面的动词和前面相同时,则动词可省略。

  ◎不定词当补语

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义62

  我人生的目标是成为名歌手。)

  2. To see is to believe. (眼见为凭。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义63

  +受词补语。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义64

  他告诉我要戒烟。)

  2. She got her husband to clean up the house. (她叫她先生打扫房子。)

  注意:有些动词,如want, ask, teach, tell, get, show等,用不定词当受词补语。

  3. He asked me not to tell her the truth. (他要求我不要跟她说实话。)

  比较:He didn't ask me to tell her the truth. (他没要求我跟她说实话。).

  注意:否定不定词→ not +to +

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义65

  原形动词

  不定词当形容词修饰名词或something…等代名词时,采用后位修饰。即:名词 / something… + to +原形动词

  △修饰名词

  例:l. I have letters to write. (我有信要写。)

  2. My mother has a lot of housework to do every day. (我妈妈每天有很多家事要做。).

  △修饰something…等

  例:l. I’ll give you something to eat. (我会给你东西吃。)

  2. Do you have anything to read ? (你有什么东西可读吗?)

  注意:有些不定词之后会伴随着介系词。

  例:1. They have a lot of things to talk about. (他们有许多事要谈。)

  2. Please give me a ball-point pen to write with. (请给我一枝原子笔写字。)

  不定词可以用来修饰动词,形容词和副词,能够表示目的、原因等

  ◎表目的→此时可用in order to +原形动词代替

  例:She went to London to study English. (她去伦敦学英语。)

  =She went to London in order to study English.

  21

  注意:go和come通常其后不接不定词,而是用and连接。

  例:Come and see me. (来看我。)

  ◎表原因→跟在表感情的形容词之后

  例:1. I am glad to see you. (很高兴见到你。 ).

  2. We are sorry to hear the news. (我们听到这消息很难过。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义66

  ◎疑问词+to原形动词→此为名词词组,可当主词、受词、补语。

  例:1. Which way to go is a big problem. (要走哪一条路是个大问题。)

  (当主词)

  我知道如何操作这机器。)

  (受词)

  他告诉我哪里可以搭公交车。)

  (当补语)

  ◎too…to… (太??而不能)

  ※too+形容词 / 副词+ to原形动词

  例:l. You are too young to understand the whole thing. (你太年轻无法了解整件事。)

  2. The water is too hot for me to drink. (对我而言水太热无法喝。)

  3. He worked too slowly to finish it. (他工作得太慢无法完成这件事。)

  ◎…enough to… (够??可以??)

  ※形容词 / 副词+ enough+ to原形动词

  例:1. My younger brother is old enough to go to school. (我弟弟年纪够大可以上学。)

  2. Bob worked hard enough to pass the exam. (Bob够用功可以通过考试。)

  Unit 3 动名词

  动名词就是在原形动词后加上ing,使其具有名词的特性,句子中可扮演主词,受词或补语的功能。 ◎动名词当主词:须具有名词特性的字 (或字群)才能当主词,所以动名词可当主词。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义67

  =To sleep eight hours a day is good for health.

  =It is good for health to sleep eight hours a day.

  2. Swimming at the beach is a lot of fun. (在海边游泳很好玩。)

  =To swim at the beach is a lot of fun.

  = It's a lot of fun to swim at the beach.

  注意:It's no use crying over spilt milk. (覆水难收。)

  ◎动名词当受词:放动词或介系词后.

  (1)当动词的受词

  例:1. You have to give up smoking. (你必须戒烟。)

  2. I like watching basketball games on TV. (我喜欢看电视上的篮球比赛。)

  注意1:动词like, love, hate, start, begin, learn…等之后可接V-ing或to-V当受词,在意义上没有差异。 例:They began dancing / to dance faster and faster. (他们开始跳得越来越快。)

  注意2:动词stop, remember, forget, try…等之后可接V-ing或to-V当受词,但意义通常不同。

  22

  例:1. The man stopped talking. (那人停止说话。)

  The man stopped to talk to a newsboy. (那人停下来和报童说话。)

  * I'm tried. I have to stop working.

  ~to take a rest.

  我累了,我必须停止工作。

  ~下来休息。

  2. She remembered meeting him somewhere. (她记得在某处曾见过他。)---已见过

  She remembered to meet him at the station. (她记得要在车站和他碰面。)---尚未过见

  ※Remember to preview your lesson before class and review your lesson after class.

  (记得课前预习,课后复习。)

  3. Lucy forgot sending me a card. (Lucy忘记曾寄给我一张卡片。)---寄过

  Lucy forgot to send me a card. (Lucy忘了要寄卡片给我。)---未寄

  ※Don't forget to send me a card on Christmas. (别忘了在圣诞节寄张卡片给我。)

  4. Try to solve the problem before ten o'clock. (设法在十点前解决这个问题。)---要人尽力去做某事 Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door.

  (如果前面没有人听到,试敲一下后门。)---即敲一敲门,试试是否有人应门

  ◎下列动词之后只能接V-ing。

  mind、enjoy、finish、practice、miss、quit、understand、avoid 、give up、can't help、can't stand、 It's no use、It's no good

  例:1. Would you mind waiting for me? (你介意等我一下吗?)

  ※ I made up my mind to wait for her. (我决定要等她。)

  2. These students practice speaking English every day. (这些学生每天练习英语。)

  3. I can't help laughing at him. (我忍不住嘲笑他。)

  (2)当介系词的受词—介系词之后必接V-ing。

  例:l. He is interested in playing hide-and-seek. (他喜欢玩躲猫猫。)

  2. We are thinking about buying a washing machine. (我们考虑要买台洗衣机。)

  ◎动名词当补语—动名词可位于be动词之后当补语。

  例:l. My work is washing cars. (我的工作是洗车。)

  2. One of my hobbies is collecting stamps. (我的嗜好之一是集邮。)

  注意:在其它句型中的V-ing形式

  1. go+ V-ing / go+ n. + V-ing

  例:go golfing打高尔夫球 go fishing去钓鱼 go hunting打猎

  go bowling打保龄球 go skating溜冰 go swimming去游泳

  go hiking去健行 go shopping逛街 go sailing去航行

  例:go mountain climbing去爬山 go bike riding骑车兜风

  go window shopping去逛街 (只逛不买) go bird watching去赏鸟

  2. do + a lot of / a little + V-ing

  例:1. I am busy, but I still do a little painting. (我很忙,但我仍然偶尔会画画。)

  2. Do you have to do a lot of traveling in your work? (你的工作必须经常旅行吗?)

  3. busy, trouble…等+ V-ing →本型中的V-ing前面常省略掉介系词in

  例:l. My mom was busy cooking dinner. (我妈那时忙着做晚餐。)

  2. I had trouble finding out the answer to the question. (我无法找出这问题的答案。)

  4. There is no + V-ing…(?是没有办法做到的。)

  例:1. There is no telling what will happen next. (无法得知接下来会发生什么事。)

  2. There is no knowing who did it. (无法知道那件事是谁做的。)

  练习:

  1. I remember seeing Mr. Smith in my office before.

  2. I'll remember to see Mr. Smith tomorrow.

  3. Would you mind going to London on business?

  4. Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one.

  23

  5. I can't help feeling worried about his health.

  6. I apologize for not keeping my promise.

  Unit 4 分词

  分词可分为现在分词及过去分词。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义68

  形式→原形动词+ing

  功用→(1)表行动进行

  例:The girl is talking with Joe. (那女孩正和Joe讲话。)

  (2)表主动

  例:The girl talking with Joe is Jane. (正和Joe讲话的那女孩是Jane。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义69

  形式→一为规则变化 (原形动词+ ed);一为不规则变化。

  功用→(1)表动作完成

  例:David has just used the pen. (David刚用过那枝笔。)

  (2)表''被动

  例:1. This is the pen used by David. (这是David用过的笔。)

  2. The pen was used by David. (这枝笔被David用过。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义70

  (1)现在分词+名词→单独的现在分词,没有受词或 (副词词组)相伴时,放在名词之前修饰名词。

  例:1. Don't wake the sleeping baby. (别吵醒睡眠中的宝宝。)

  2. The rising sun is very beautiful. (日出非常美丽。)

  (2)名词+现在分词→现在分词后有受词或修饰语句相伴时,放在名词之后修饰名词。

  例:I saw a man working in the garden. (我看到一个人在花园工作。)

  I saw a girl playing the piano on the stage. (我看到一个女孩在舞台上弹钢琴。)

  I saw a child sleeping on the grass. (我看到一个小孩睡在草地上。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义71

  (1)过去分词+名词→单独的过去分词,没有受词或副词片语相伴时,放在名词之前修饰名词。

  例:1. I found the lost pen. (我找到那支遗失的笔。)

  2. She bought a used car. (她买了一辆二手车。)

  注意:过去分词的形容词用法,代表两种含义。

  1. 表被动

  例:a spoken language (说的语言) a decayed tooth (蛀牙)

  a wounded soldier (受伤的士兵) a boiled egg (煮熟的蛋)

  ※boiling water (沸腾的水) boiled water (开水)

  2. 表完成

  fallen leaves(已经飘落的叶子) ※falling leaves (正在飘落的叶子)

  the risen sun(已经升起的太阳) ※the rising sun (正在升起的太阳)

  a faded flower (退休的老师)

  a retired teacher(凋谢的画)

  (2)名词+过去分词→过去分词后有受词或修饰语句相伴时,放在名词之后修饰名词。

  例:1. This is a picture painted about 200 years ago. (这是一幅两百年前画的图画。)

  2. We have some story books written in easy English. (我们有些用简单英文写成的故事书。)

  (3)名词+现在分词+修饰语句

  名词+现在分词+修饰语句→在句中还可扮演主词、受词及补语的功用。

  24

  a. 当主词

  例:l. The woman sitting in the middle is Bob's mother. (坐在中间的女人是Bob的母亲。)

  2. Some of the people waiting for the bus became angry. (等公交车中的有些人变得很生气。)

  b. 当受词

  例:1. I know the boy running in the park. (我认识在公园跑步的男孩。)

  2. Do have you any friends living in Japan? (你有任何住在日本的朋友吗?)

  c. 当补语

  例:l. The subway is the railway running under the ground. (地铁是在地下行驶的铁路。)

  2. A nurse is a person taking care of sick people. (护士是照顾病人的人。)

  (4)名词+过去分词+修饰语句

  名词+过去分词+修饰语句→在句中还可扮演主词、受词及补语的功用。

  a. 当主词

  例:The language spoken in America is English. (美国说的语言是英语。)

  b. 当受词

  例:I look at a lot of pictures taken in Kenting. (我看了许多在垦丁拍的照片。)

  c. 补语

  例:This is a dress made for her. (这是为她做的洋装。)

  比较:形容词用法的现在分词及过去分词。

  1. 现在分词当形容词用,表a.动作进行 b.主动

  2. 过去分词当形容词用,表a.动作完成 b.主动

  例:l. The girl drawing the picture is my sister. (画这幅画的女孩是我姊。)

  2. The picture drawn by my sister is nice. (这幅我姊姊所画的画不错。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义72

  (1) S + V +现在分词→现在分词可直接放在动词后,当补语使用

  a. keep +现在分词:表动作的持续或重复。

  例:l. He keeps standing for three hours. (他一直站了三小时。)

  2. The dog kept barking all night. (那只狗整晚叫个不停。)

  b. come (stand, sit?等)+现在分词→现在分词可作为come, stand, sit, lie等表静止或运动的动词之补语,表示两个动作同时进行。

  例:1. The children came running to meet us. (小朋友跑来迎接我们。)

  2. Jack stood looking at the monkeys. (Jack站着看猴子。)

  (2) S+V+O+现在分词→现在分词可作为感官动词hear, see, feel…及keep, leave等动词的受词补语。

  例:1. I saw her crossing the road. (我看见她穿越马路。)

  2. Don't leave her waiting outside in the rain. (别让她在外面雨中等待。)

  (3) S+V+O+过去分词→过去分词可作为make, have, see, hear, feel, want, wish, would like…等动词的受词补

  语。

  例:1. I could not make myself understood in English. (我的英文别人听不懂。)

  2. She heard her name called. (她听到有人叫她的名字。)

  3. I had my hair cut. (我剪头发了。)

  比较:动名词及现在分词

  动名词及现在分词的形皆为原形动词+ing ,但其功用不同。

  ◎动名词:动名词是一个动词,在使用时具有名词的特性,可当主词,受词及补语。

  ◎现在分词:进行式为be动词+现在分词,表一个动作正在进行。另外,现在分词也有形容词的功用,可修饰名词或当有些动词的受词补语。

  例:1. Tom's hobby is painting. (动名词) (Tom的嗜好是画画。)

  2. Tom is painting. (现在分词) (Tom正在画画。)

  Unit 5 形容词

  25

  1. 形容词的用法

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义73

  放be动词或连缀动词之后,补充说明主词。

  例:1. He is old and sick. (他又老又病。)

  2. Mark became hungry after two hours' work. (在工作两小时后,Mark变得很饿。)

  3. Sea water tastes salty. (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义74

  海水尝起来咸咸的。)

  修饰名词

  ◎形容词+名词

  例:1. a useful book (一本有用的书) 2. physical education (体育)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义75

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义76

  ◎an important thing (一件重要的事) something important (某件重要的事)

  例:1. He eats nothing sweet. (甜的东西他一概不吃。)

  2. Something terrible is about to happen. (某件可怕的事即将要发生。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义77

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义78

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义79

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义80

  2. 例:l. Did he make many mistakes on the test? (他考试犯了许多错误吗?)

  2. Is there much wine in the bottle? (瓶子里有许多酒吗?)

  例:1. These were a few children in the yard at that time. (那时有些小朋友在院子里。)

  2. I gave her a little trouble. (我给她添了一些麻烦。)

  例:l. He is a man of few words. (他是个不太爱说话的人。)

  2. There is little hope of his recovery. (他几乎没有复元的希望。)

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  例:l. He collects some foreign stamps. (他收集了一些外国邮票。)

  2. There is not any tea in the cup. (杯子里没有茶了。)

  注意:劝人吃东西,请人帮忙,或期待对方回答Yes时,问句里也用some。

  例:1. Would you like some wine? (想要些葡萄酒吗?)

  2. May I have some more coffee? (我可以再要些咖啡吗?)

  3. 数词

  基数 序数 基数 序数

  1. one first (1st) 11. eleven eleventh (11th)

  2. two second (2nd) 12. twelve twelfth (12th)

  3. three third (3rd) 13. thirteen thirteenth (13th)

  4. four fourth (4th) 15. fifteen fifteenth (15th)

  5. five fifth (5th) 20. twenty twentieth (20th)

  6. six sixth (6th) 21. twenty-one twenty-first (21st)

  7. seven seventh (7th) 30. thirty thirtieth (30th)

  8. eight eighth (8th) 40. forty fortieth (40th)

  9. nine ninth (9th) 90. ninety ninetieth (90th)

  10. ten tenth (l0th) 100. one hundred hundredth ( 100th)

  数的读法

  △整数

  例:1. 12,345 → twelve thousand three hundred and forty-five

  2. 3,874,516 → three million eight hundred and seventy-four thousand five hundred and sixteen △小数:小数点为point

  例:1. 3. 14 → three point one four

  2. 27. 08 → twenty-seven point zero eight △分数:分子?基数

  分母?序数。若分子超过1,则分母加s。

  例:1. 1→ one third 32. 23→ two and three fourths 4

  △年月日

  例:1. 2000年→(the year) two thousand

  2. 1984年7月4日→July four(th), nineteen eighty-four

  △时刻

  例:1. 6:15→six fifteen/a quarter past six

  2. 7:30→seven thirty/half past seven

  3. 8:59→eight fifty-nine/one to nine

  △温度

  例:1. 摄氏25C→twenty-five degrees centigrade/Celsius

  2. 华氏93F→ninety-three degrees Fahrenheit

  △电话号码

  例:2834-7509→two eight three four, seven five zero nine

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义81

  △hundreds/thousands/millions of…数以百/千/百万计的??

  例:l. He has one hundred kinds of stamps. (他有100种邮票。)

  2. Hundreds of children gathered in the playground. (数以百计的小朋友聚集在运动场。)

  △in + one's/the +数词的复数形

  例:l. She is in her twenties/teens. (她20几岁/ 10几岁。)

  2. There was an antiwar movement in the nineteen-sixties. (在1960年代有一项反战运动。)

  27

  △数词-单数名词=形容词

  例:1. It's only a ten-minute walk from here to the station. (从这里走路到车站只要十分钟路程。)

  2. The young man married a 70-year-old woman. (那年轻人娶了一位70岁的女士。)

  Unit 6 副词

  1. 副词的功用

  △修饰一般动词

  例:He drives his car carefully. (他小心开车。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义82

  )

  △修饰形容词

  例:He is a very careful driver. (他是一位很小心的驾驶。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义83

  )

  △修饰另一个副词

  例:He drives his car very carefully. (他开车非常小心。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义84

  )

  2. 副词的种类

  (1)情状副词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义85

  △形容词加ly

  例:quick-quickly (快) careful-carefully (小心)

  △形容词字尾为le →去e加ly

  例:terrible-terribly (可怕) comfortable-comfortably (舒适)

  △形容词字尾为子音+y →去y加ily

  例:happy-happily (快乐) heavy-heavily (重的)

  △形容词字尾为ll→加y

  例:full-fully (满) dull-dully (迟钝)

  △形容词字尾为ue →去e加ly

  例:true-truly (真实) due-duly (适当)

  △形容词,副词同形

  例:early (早),late (晚),enough (足够),fast (快),first (第一),last (最后)等。

  △不规则变化

  例:good-well (好)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义86

  △动词+副词=副词+动词

  例:She danced beautifully. = She beautifully danced. (她舞得很美。)

  △动词+受词+副词=副词+动词+受词

  例:All of us accepted the invitation gladly.

  = All of us gladly accepted the invitation. (我们所有人都很乐意接受这邀请。)

  △动词+介系词+受词+副词=副词+动词+介系词+受词=动词+副词+介系词+受词

  例:She walked into the classroom quietly.

  = She quietly walked into the classroom.

  = She walked quietly into the classroom. (她安静地走进教室。)

  △be动词+副词+ V-ing

  例:He was anxiously waiting for her arrival. (他焦急地等着她的到来。 )

  注意:字尾为ly的情状副词可用于一句的句首。

  例:Slowly and carefully he opened the box. (他慢慢地小心翼翼地打开盒子。)

  注意:连缀动词,如fell, taste…等,其后须接形容词。

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  例:1. The old man looked angry. (那老人看起来很生气。)

  The old man looked at me angrily. (那老人生气地看着我。)

  2. We felt sad for his death. (我们为他的死感到难过。)

  The doctor felt the pulse carefully. (医生细心地诊脉。)

  3. Mark appeared calm. (Mark似乎很冷静。)

  Mark appeared suddenly at the door. (Mark突然出现在门口。)

  (2)频率副词→ always (总是),usually (通常),often (经常),sometimes (偶尔),seldom (不常),ever (曾经),

  never (绝不)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义87

  △→be动词/助动词之后

  △一般动词之前

  例:Jim is always late to school. =Jim always goes to school late. (Jim上学总是迟到。)

  △简答句或简述句时,在be动词或助动词之前

  例:l. Mr. Wang usually goes to the office by bus, but Mrs. Wang never does.

  (王先生通常搭公交车上班,但王太太从不搭公交车上班。)

  2. Did you ever talk to foreigners in English? No, I never did.

  (你曾用英语和外国人交谈吗?不,从没有。)

  注意:频率副词除always外,也可以用于句首。

  例:Sometimes we eat dinner in that restaurant. (偶尔我们在那家餐厅吃晚餐。)

  注意:询问频率用How often (多久一次)

  例:How often do the buses run between the station and your school? → Once an hour.

  (从车站到你们学校之间公交车隔多久来一班? 一小时一班。)

  (3)地方副词→ there (那里),here (这里),downstairs (楼下),upstairs (楼上),inside (在内),outside (在外),

  under the tree (在树下)…等。

  △小地方+大地方

  例:Her parents lived on a small farm in a remote country. (她父母住在偏远乡下的一个小农场上。)

  △地方副词很少用于句首,如用于句首,通常用以表示对比或强调

  例:l. The young girls are going upstairs. (那些年轻女孩们正往楼上走去。)

  2. Upstairs they are having a party, and downstairs people are playing loud music. So I cannot study in my apartment. (楼上正在开派对,而楼下又有人大声的放音乐。所以我无法在我的公寓里读书。)

  (4)时间副词

  △句首/句尾

  例:Last week you promised me to do it. →You promised me to do it last week.

  (上星期你承诺我要做这件事。)

  △小时间+大时间

  例:The wedding took place on Wednesday evening last week. (婚礼在上星期三晚上举行。)

  注意:若有几个不同类的副词同时出现,其次序为:地方副词+情状副词+频率副词+时间副词

  例:1. My sister went upstairs quietly a minute ago. (我姊姊不久前安静地上楼去。)

  2. A time bomb exploded at the station yesterday. (一颗定时炸弹昨天在车站爆炸。)

  (5)程度副词→ so (如此地)、too (太)、very (非常)、quite (相当地)、enough (够)

  △用于所修饰的形容词或副词前。

  例:so comfortable (如此舒适)、too tired (太累)、very carefully (非常小心)

  △enough用于所修饰的形容词或副词之后。

  例:tall enough (够高),kind enough (够仁慈)

  例:It's warm enough for you to play out of doors. (天气够暖和你可以到外面玩。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义88

  △very修饰原级和最高级 much修饰比较级和最高级

  例:l. He is a very good boy. (他是位非常棒的男孩。)

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  2. He is a much better boy than you. (他是位比你棒的男孩。)

  3. He is much the best boy of all. = He is the very best boy of all. (他是所有男孩中最棒的。) △much及very much可修饰动词,但very不可以。

  例:I don't like the idea (very) much. 我不是很喜欢这想法。

  △现在分词(V-ing)及过去分词(p. p.)可当形容词用。

  ??修饰现在分词?very

  ?修饰过去分词?much,very much

  ※列入字典当形容词的过去分词则用very。

  例:1. English is an very interesting subject. (英文是非常有趣的科目。)

  2. I am much (= very much) interested in English. (我对英语很感兴趣。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义89

  我非常高兴教大家英语。)

  maybe (或许)为副词;may为助动词,be为动词,意指可能是。

  例:1. Maybe he is right. (也许他对了。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义90

  他可能对了。

  △sometime (某个时候),some time (一些时间)

  例:1. I saw him sometime last year. (我在去年某个时间见过他。)

  2. I'll call on you sometime. (改天我会去拜访你。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义91

  如果我能挪出一点时间,我会做这件事。) everyday (每天)当形容词用;every day (每天)当副词用

  例:l. Wear your everyday clothes. (穿便服吧。)

  2. She helps her mom with kitchen work everyday. (她每天帮她母亲做厨房工作。) 注意:某些副词可修饰整个句子

  例:Unfortunately, John failed to pass the exam. (不幸地,John未能通过考试。)

  Unit 7 动词

  动词??be动词(连缀动词)?表状态;存在

  ?一般动词?表动作

  1. 连缀动词 (+形容词)

  ?1?变得??become ?形容词/名词

  ?get, grow, come, go ?形容词

  例:1. Come home before it gets dark. (天黑前回家。)

  2. My dream will come true in the future. (我的梦想未来会实现。)

  3. She went red with anger. (她气得满脸通红。)

  (2)??起来

  ??look (看起来),sound (听起来),smell (闻起来),?

  ?taste (尝起来),fell (感觉起来)???形容词/ like (像)?名词

  例:1. It sounds great. (听起来很棒。)

  It sounds like a true story. (那好像是真实的故事。)

  2. The cloth feels soft. (这块布摸起来很柔软。)

  The cloth feels like silk. (这块布摸起来像丝。)

  注意:feel like + V-ing (想要);feel like (大概是??似的)

  例:1. I don't feel like taking a walk now. (我现在不想去散步。)

  30

  2. It feels like rain. (大概快下雨了。)

  (3)保持??(状态)→keep, stay

  例:l. She kept calm during the earthquake. (地震时她保持冷静。)

  2. The weather is going to stay fine for a few days. (晴天将会持续两三天。)

  2. 授与动词 (有两受词,一为人,一为物)

  ?受词(人)?受词(物)句型:s?授与动词?? ?受词(物)?介词?受词(人)

  例:She asked me a question. = She asked a question of me. (她问我一个问题。 )

  ※授与动词所搭配的介词

  △to → give (给),lend (借出),show (展示),pass (传递),pay (付钱),sell (卖),send (寄),teach (教),

  tell (告诉)??等。

  △for → buy (买),make (制造),cook (烹煮),get (得到),find (找出),play (演奏),sing (唱歌)??等。 △of → ask (问)

  例:1. Will you lend me your pen? =Will you lend your pen to me? (请你把你的钢笔借我好吗?)

  注意:borrow (借入),其后只能接受词(物)。

  例:I borrowed many story books from my friend. (我向朋友借了许多故事书。)

  2. His mother bought him a CD player. =His mother bought a CD player for him.

  =His mother bought it for him. (他妈妈买了CD音响给他。)

  3. 使役动词“叫??(人)做??(事)”

  △make, have (叫??)+受词+原形动词

  △get (叫??)+受词+ to V.

  △let (让??)+受词+原形动词

  △help (帮忙??)+受词+原形动词/to V

  例:1. Our parents made us brush our teeth three times a day. (我们的父母强迫我们一天刷三次牙。)

  2. I'll get them to try it again. (我要叫他们再试一次。)

  3. He helped me (to) paint the wall green. (他帮我把墙漆成绿色。)

  4. 感官动词

  ?feel (感觉),see (看),watch (看),look at (注视),????受词?原形动词/V?ing notice (注意),hear (听),listen to (倾听)??

  例:1. I looked carefully but saw nothing. (我注意看了,但什么也没看见。)

  2. I saw him mow / mowing the lawn. (我看见他在修剪草坪。)

  3. I noticed her stand / standing behind me. (我注意到她站在我后面。)

  5. 情绪动词[使??(人)感到??]

  句型:主词 (事物)+ 情绪动词+受词 (人)。

  →主词 (事物)+be动词+情绪V-ing + to +受词 (人)。

  →主词 (人)+be动词+情绪p. p. +介词+受词 (事物) 。

  ??现在分词?V?ing??修饰事物 ※情绪动词?情绪形容词????过去分词?p. p. ??修饰人

  例:l. The computer game interests young people. (这计算机游戏引起年轻人的兴趣。)

  →The computer game is interesting to young people.

  →Young people are interested in the computer game.

  →Young people take / have interest in the computer game.

  注意:情绪动词之过去分词所搭配的介词如下:

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  ?interested in (对??感兴趣?)

  ?surprised at (对??感讶异)

  ?excited about (对??感兴奋)

  be动词????embarrassed about (对??感困窘)

  ??worried about (对??感担心)

  ??bored with (对??感无聊)

  ??satisfied with (对??感到满意)

  例:l. Tom is boring, so nobody wants to be with him. (Tom很无趣,所以没人想和他在一起。)

  2. I am bored with his endless tales. (他冗长的故事令我厌烦。)

  初级英文文法 3

  1. 现在完成式的形式→have/has+过去分词

  2. 现在完成式的否定句及疑问句

  3. 现在完成式的使用时机

  4. 特别注意的现在完成式

  1. 附加问句的形式

  2. 特别注意的附加问句

  1. 主动及被动

  2. 被动语态的形式→主词+be V+过去分词+by+行为者

  3. 主动及被动的转换

  4. 各时态的被动语态形式

  5. 各句型的被动语态形式

  6. 特别注意的被动语态

  1. 关系代名词的功用→连接词+代名词

  2. 关系代名词的种类

  3. 主格的关系代名词

  4. 所有格的关系代名词

  5. 受格的关系代名词

  6. 特别注意的关系代名词

  7. 修饰名词的字、词组、子句

  1. 直接问句及间接问句

  2. 间接问句的形成

  3. 特别注意的间接问句

  1. 连接词的功能

  2. 连接词总类

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  1.

  2.

  3.

  4.

  介系词的功能 表示时间的介系词 表示地点的介系词 重要的介系词

  Unit 1 现在完成式

  现在完成式是用来表示过去发生的动作或状态, 与现在有关系的一种时态。其中包含了“持续”、“完成”、“经验”等不同的用法。

  现在完成式的形式→have/has +过去分词。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义92

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义93

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义94

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义95

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义96

  He will be busy tomorrow.

  He is going to study tomorrow. He was busy yesterday. He is busy now. He studied yesterday. He studies every day.

  He has been busy since yesterday.

  He has studied for two days.

  现在完成式的否定句及疑问句

  ◎肯定句→主词+have/has +过去分词??.

  ◎否定句→主词+ have/has + not+过去分词??.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义97

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义98

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义99

  现在完成式的使用时机

  (1)持续

  I began to learn English three years ago.

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义100

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义101

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义102

  I still learn it now. 我学英文三年了。)

  我从3年前开始学英文。)

  ※表持续的副词

  33

  ①for +时间长度

  ?过去时间②Since+时间起点? ?过去式子句

  )?for ten years. (我们彼此认识10年了。?例:1. We have known each other ? ?ten years ago.

  ?since ?we were children.??

  2. I haven't seen you for a long time.

  ?has?= It ??a long time since I last saw you. been is??

  = Long time no see. (好久不见。)

  ③其它副词:all day (整天), these days, lately, recently (最近), always (一直), this week (这个星期)??等。

  例:I have had a headache all day (long). (我头痛了一整天了。)

  ④how long (多久)

  例:How long has he played the piano? For two hours. (他弹琴弹多久了?两小时)

  比较:how long (多久)→问时间

  how often (多久一次)→问频率

  例:l. How long have you lived in Taipei? (你们在台北住多久了。)

  )?for ten years. (我们住在台北十年了。→We have lived in Taipei ? since 1994. (从1994年起我们就住在台北了。)?

  2. How often do you go to a beauty parlor? (你多久上一次美容院?)

  →Once a week. (一星期一次。)

  (2)完成

  过去式

  现在完成式

  动作开始 现在式 ?已经????刚才?完成

  ?尚未???

  ※表完成的副词

  ①already (已经)→放have/has和过去分词之间, 也可放句尾。通常用于肯定句;若用于疑问句时, 则含有惊讶之意。

  ②just (刚才)→放have/has和过去分词之间。

  ③yet (尚;还)→通常只用于疑问句及否定句。放haw/has和过去分词之间, 也可放句尾。

  ④其它副词:today (今天), this morning (今天早上), lately, recently (最近), now (现在)??等。

  例:1. The train for Kaohsiung has already arrived. (往高雄的火车已经到了。)

  2. I have just read that comic book. (我刚读过那本漫画书。)

  3. Have you found my digital camera yet? (你找到我的数位相机了吗?)

  )?I haven't found it yet. (不,我还没找到。→No, ? not yet. (不,还没。)?

  比较:just (刚才)可用于现在完成式及过去式。

  just now 用于过去式,意思是指刚才

  用于现在式,意思是指此刻现在

  用于未来式,意思是指马上

  例:1. Tom came in just now; he's probably upstairs. (汤姆刚才进来;他大概在楼上。)

  2. He is just now answering the call. (他此刻正在接电话。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义103

  )

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  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义104

  3. I'll do it just now. (我马上做。)

  (3)经验

  ※表经验的副词

  ①ever (曾经), never (从未), often (经常)等频率副词。

  ②once (一次), twice (两次), …times (??次), before (以前)等。

  例:1. Have you ever visited National Palace Museum? (你曾参观过故宫博物院吗?)

  ?I have never visited there before.?→No, ?I never have. (不, 我从未参观过故宫。)

  ?never.?

  ※表经验也可用过去式, 上述例句也可说成:

  Did you ever visit National Palace Museum?

  ?I never visited there before.→No, ? ?I never did.

  2. My younger sister really likes that movie. She has watched it five times.

  (我妹妹真的很喜欢那部电影。她已看了五次。)

  ※Do you ever visit National Palace Museum in your free time? (你空闲时会去参观故宫吗?)

  特别注意的现在完成式

  (1)现在完成式及过去式

  例:1. Mr. Green has gone to New York on business. (格林先生已经去纽约出差了。)

  2. Mr. Green went to New York on business. (格林先生去纽约出差回来了。)

  (2)have been to及have gone to

  haw been to意指曾经去过… 或刚才去了…

  have gone to意指已经去了… ,主词只能用第三人称。

  例:1. I have just been to the station to see her off. (我刚才去了车站替她送行。)

  2. Have you ever been to the library? (你曾经去过图书馆吗?)

  3. She has gone to Europe. (她已经去欧洲了。)

  4. Did you ever go to a basketball game? (你曾经去看篮球赛?)

  5. Have you ever been to a basketball game? (你曾经去看篮球赛?)

  (3)瞬间动作(动作不能延续者)用于现在完成式时, 其后不可加一段时间。

  例:l. His father has died for ten years. ()

  His father died ten years ago. (√)

  His father has been dead for ten years. (√)

  (他父亲过逝十年。)

  2. Amy has bought the car for one year. ()

  Amy has bought the car already. (√)

  Amy bought the car and has owned it for one year. (√)

  (艾咪那辆车买一年了。)

  3. Mr. Wang has gone to America for three days. ()

  Mr. Wang has gone to America. (√)

  Mr. Wang has been in America for three days. (√)

  (王先生已经去美国三天了。)

  练习

  1. This month, I have been so lucky that I can hardly believe it. (这个月, 我的运气好得连我都不敢相信。)

  2. At the beginning of the month, I got 90 points on my monthly exam. (月初我的数学月考考了90分。)

  35

  3. In the middle of the month, I won the second place in an English speech contest. (月中, 英语演讲比赛我得

  了第二名。)

  4. The other day, my father gave me a computer as a birthday present. (前几天,父亲送我一部电脑当生日礼

  物。)

  5. I have never been so lucky so far in my life. (这辈子, 我的运气从来没有这么好过。)

  Unit 2 附加问句

  依附在直述句或祈使句的句尾, 用以询问事物或征求对方同意的简短问句, 叫做附加问句。

  (1)附加问句读成上升语调时, 表询问事物, 其意相当于一般问句, 可用Yes或No回答。

  例:You are from Japan, aren't you?(↗) (你来自日本, 是吗?) =Are you from Japan?

  →Yes, I am. / No, I am not.

  (2)附加问句读成下降语调时, 表问话者心中早有定见, 只是寻求对方认同。

  例:You should follow traffic rules, shouldn't you? (↘) (你应该遵守交通规则, 对吧?)

  附加问句的形式

  (1) 肯定直述句, 否定附加问句。

  否定直述句, 肯定附加问句。

  (2) 附加问句中, 使用be动词或助动词, 要根据前面的直述句做判断。而否定附加问句中的be动词(或助

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义105

  (3)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义106

  爸以前运动很行, 不是吗?)

  泰山爱上一位美丽的女孩, 不是吗?)

  人们不能使用假的信用卡, 是吗?)

  这真是个令人尴尬的经验, 不是吗?)

  吃太多垃圾食物对健康无益, 是吗?)

  那宝宝睡着了, 不是吗?)

  特别注意的附加问句

  (1) am和not没有缩写形, 附加问句用am I not, aren't I或ain't I代替。

  ?am I not??例:I am the right man for the job, ?aren't I?(我正是适合这工作的人, 不是吗?)

  ?ain't I??

  (2)直述句若是There is (are)…的句型, 附加问句用isn't (aren't) there回应。

  36

  例:1. There is an old man jogging in the playground, isn't there? (有位老人在运动场上慢跑, 不是吗?)

  2. There are not any pedestrians in the street, are there? (路上没有任何行人, 是吗?)

  (3)直述句中有have/has/had的附加问句

  have/has +过去分词→have/has为助动词

  had better (最好)+原形动词→had为助动词

  例:1. We have to finish the work by ourselves, don't we? (我们必须靠自己完成这工作, 不是吗?) 他喜欢流行乐, 不是吗?) 他已决定戒烟了, 不是吗?) 玛丽和她的朋友们玩得很开心,不是吗?) 会议上你最好保持沉默, 不是吗?)

  (4)直述句中含有否定字, 如:no, nothing, never, seldom, little, few等,要用肯定附加问句。

  例:1. There is nothing wrong with your cell phone, is there? (你的手机没有毛病, 是吗?) 我从不对别人说谎, 是吧?)

  3. The foreigner has few friends here in Taiwan, (这外国人在台湾这里几乎没有朋友,对吧?)

  (5)直述句中有too...to… (太??而不能??), 用否定附加问句。

  例:You are too young to have the right to vote, aren't you? (你年纪太小了没有投票权, 不是吗?)

  (6)直述句主词是something, anything, nothing, everything时, 附加问句的主词用it;若主词是someone, anyone, no one, everyone时, 附加问句的主词用they。

  例:1. Something bad happened to the student, didn't it? (那学生发生了不好的事, 不是吗?) 有人没有先问我就拿了我的笔记本, 不是吗?)

  (7)当主要子句和附属子句出现时, 根据主要子句形成附加问句。

  例:l. If it is fine tomorrow, they will go picnicking, won't they? (如果明天天气晴朗, 他们要去野餐, 不是

  吗?) 许多读者认为它是本有趣的小说, 不是吗?)

  (8)主要子句是I (或we) know/think/believe/imagine/guess/hear…等,根据that子句形成附加问句。

  例:1. I know (that) you don't want to hurt me, do you? (我知道你不想伤害我, 不是吗?) 我相信他会尽力而为, 不是吗?) 我认为我们不能花太多钱在衣服上, 是吧?)

  (9)感叹句用否定附加问句, 主词仍与感叹句的主词一致。

  例:1. What a kind man he is, isn't he? (他是多么善良的人, 不是吗?) 多有趣的漫画书, 不是吗?)

  (10)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义107

  别关灯, 好吗?)

  喝杯茶, 好吗?)

  咱们今天就到此为止, 好吗?)

  让我们帮你的忙, 好吗?)

  咱们不要用英语交谈, 好吗?)

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  Unit 3 被动语态

  主动及被动

  例:l. Tom repairs bikes. →由汤姆的立场而言。

  2. Bikes are repaired by Tom. →由脚踏车的立场而言。

  被动语态的形式→主词+ be V +过去分词+ by +行为者

  ※be动词+过去分词

  ↓ ↓

  表时态 表被动

  例:1. The song is sung by Jolin. (这首歌由Jolin所唱。)

  ↓ ↓

  现在式 被动 我听到这首歌由Jolin所唱。)

  ↓ ↓

  现在式 被动 加拿大说英语及法语。)

  ↓

  非行为者, 介系词不用by

  主动及被动的转换

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义108

  +介系词可被视为及物动词片语, 所以仍可形成被动语态。

  例:1. I listen to music. (我听音乐。)

  2. Something happened to Mark. (马克出事了。)

  3. He takes care of the newcomer to the club. (他照顾社团里的新人。) →The newcomer to the club is taken care of by him.

  时态的被动语态形式

  (1)现在式的被动语态→

  例:Betty keeps five newborn cats at home. (贝蒂家里养着5只刚生下的猫咪。)

  →

  (2)过去式的被动语态→was / were +过去分词

  例:l. They sold many kinds of child seats at the shop. (他们店里卖许多种类的儿童座椅。)

  →警方人员在大街上追捕小偷)

  →

  (3)现在进行式的被动语态→am / are / is +being +过去分词

  例:Workers are building the new shopping center. (工人们正在盖新的购物中心)

  →

  (4)过去进行式的被动语态→was / were +being +过去分词

  例:Mr. Smith was printing the exam papers. (史密斯先生正在印考卷)

  →

  38

  ?Will ? be ?过去分词(5)未来式的被动语态→? be动词going to ?be ?过去分词?

  例:1. They will hold the school sports in October. (十月份将举办学校运动会。)

  →我们班上的同学将讨论这个问题。)

  →

  ※其它助动词, 如:can, must, should…等的被动语态形成方法, 和未来式的被动一样。

  例:Every one of us should follow school rules. (我们每一个人应该遵守校规。)

  →

  (6)现在完成式的被动语态→have/has +been +过去分词

  例:The teacher has already punished the naughty boy. (老师已经处罚了那个顽皮的男孩。)

  →

  各句型的被动语态形式

  (1)Yes / No问句→即be动词或助动词为首的问句

  例:l. Did Judy mess up my room? (我的房间被茱蒂弄乱的吗?)

  →Was my room messed up by Judy?

  2. Must I take the cold medicine three times a day? (我必须一天吃三次这感冒药吗?)

  →Must the cold medicine be taken three times a day (by me)?

  (2)WH问句→即疑问词为首的问句

  例:1. What did he catch? (他抓到什么?) =What was caught by him?

  →The lion was. (是狮子。)

  2. When did the boy break the window? (这男孩是什么时候打破窗户?) =When was the window

  broken by the boy?

  →It was broken yesterday afternoon.

  3. What language is spoken in Spain? (西班牙说何种语言?)

  →Spanish is.

  (3)“Who +动词”的问句→By whom +be动词+主词+过去分词???

  例:Who bought the sweater?(谁买了这件毛衣?)→By whom was the sweater bought?

  ?主词?be动词?not?过去分词?。(4)否定句→? 助动词?not?be过去分词?。?

  例:1. They don't collect recyclable paper every day. (他们并非每天回收纸类。)

  →Recyclable paper isn't be collected (by them) every day.

  2. We can't see a full moon tonight. (今晚我们无法看到满月。)

  →A full moon can't be seen (by us) tonight.

  特别注意的被动语态

  (1) by+行为者之省略→by之后的行为者, 若泛指一般人或未指明某人或含糊不清的某人时, 则省略。

  例:1. Rice is grown in Taiwan. (台湾种稻。)

  2. My uncle was killed in the war. (我叔叔死于战争。)

  3. The novel was translated into many languages. (这小说被翻译成许多语言。)

  (2)不使用by的被动语态

  例:l. Mr. Jackson is known to people in this town. (杰克森先生为此镇上的人所知。)

  ※Taipei is known for its good foods. (台北以美食闻名。) 她以身为成功的歌手闻名。) 那些山为白雪所覆盖。) 他们在烤肉时被一阵雨给淋湿了。) 皮鞋由皮革制成。)

  39

  面包由面粉制成。)

  ※表感情;情绪的被动语态也不用by

  例:

  ?interested in(对??感兴趣)????surprised at(对;感讶异)??satisfied with(对??感满意)?????主词(人)+be动词+?impressed with / by(对??印象深刻)?+事物

  ?pleased with(对??中意)????excited about(对??感兴奋)???worried about(对??担心)????

  (3)授与动词的被动语态

  例:l. The embassy gave me a new passport. (大使馆发给我一份新护照。)

  →I was given a new passport by the embassy.

  →A new passport was given (to) me by the embassy.

  2. Mr. White told us the history story. (怀特先生跟我们说那个历史故事。)

  →We were told the history story by Mr. White.

  →The history story was told (to) us by Mr. White.

  ※有些授与动词, 如:make, cook, get, read, sell, sing, write, pass…等,不可用人做为被动语态的主词。 例:Mom cooked us vegetable soup. (妈妈为我们煮蔬菜汤。)

  →Vegetable soup was cooked for us by Mom.

  →We were cooked vegetable soup by Mom. ()

  (4)主词+动词+受词+补语的被动语态

  ※补语不能做为被动语态的主词。

  例:l. They painted the board blue. (他们将板子涂成蓝色。)

  →The board was painted blue by them.

  2. We elected Jack chairperson. (我们选杰克为主席。)

  →Jack was elected chairperson by us.

  (5)祈使句的被动语态

  ※原形动词+受词

  例:Open the door. (打开门。)

  →Let the door be opened.

  ※Let +O(人)+原形动词+ O (物)

  例:Let me tell the truth. (让我说实话吧。)

  →Let the truth be told by me.

  (6)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义109

  我昨天剪短头发了。)

  立刻这么做吧。)

  林先生叫我做这工作。)

  40

  (7)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义110

  )

  我看见小男孩被他打。)

  他被我看见打这小孩。)

  Unit 4 关系代名词

  关系代名词的功用→连接词+代名词

  例:1. I have a friend. The friend lives in Paris. (我有一位住在巴黎的朋友。)

  →

  →

  ※国语:住在巴黎的朋友

  英语:a friend who lives in Paris

  ※语顺为先行词+关系代名词, 但也有下列句子:

  例:There was an old man in the apartment who was very rich.

  (这公寓以前住着一位非常富有的老人。)

  我遇到两位女孩, 其中一位是我表妹。) 关系代名词的种类

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义111

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义112

  主格的关系代名词

  (1)主格who→先行词(人)+主格关系代名词who +动词

  例:1. The man is my father. The man wears sunglasses.

  →The man who wears sunglasses is my father. (戴太阳眼镜的人是我爸。)

  →I don't like people who get out of temper easily. (我不喜欢容易发脾气的人。)

  (2)主格which→先行词 (事物;动物)+主格关系代名词which +动词

  例:1. I live in the house. The house stands on the hill.

  →I live in the house which stands on the hill. (我住在那栋位于山丘上的房子里。)

  →English is a language which is spoken all over the world. (英语是全世界通用的语言。)

  (3)主格关代that+先行词(人、事物;动物)+主格关系代名词that+动词

  例:1. People, who / that help doctors and look after patients are called nurses.

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  (帮忙医生照顾病人的人称为护士。)

  2. I like the building which / that was designed by Mr. Wu. (我喜欢这栋被吴先生设计出来的大楼。) ※主格的关系代名词其后所接的动词, 须与先行词的单复数一致。

  例:l. Tom is one of the boys who are fond of sports. (汤姆是那些喜欢运动的男孩其中之一。)

  2. I know a child who is good at surfing. (我认识一位很会冲浪的小孩。)

  3. Adults don't like children who tell lies. (大人不喜欢会说谎的小孩。)

  ※that的不同用法

  (1)指示代名词

  例:The weather in Kaohsiung is hotter than that in Taipei. (高雄的天气比台北的天气热。)

  (2)指示形容词

  例:Look at that dog. (看那只狗。)

  (3)关系代名词

  例:The boy that is playing the guitar is Jimmy. (正在弹吉他的男孩是吉米。)

  (4)连接词

  例:I think that honesty is the best policy. (我认为诚实为上策。)

  所有格的关系代名词

  所有格whose→先行词(人;事物;动物)+所有格关系代名词whose+名词

  例:1. I know a girl. Her father is a journalist.

  →我认识一位她的爸爸是新闻记者的女孩。)

  →看那栋屋顶破损的房子。)

  受格的关系代名词

  (1)受格whom→先行词(人)+受格关系代名词whom +主词 +动词+(介系词)

  ※口语中, 受格关代whom也可用who代替。

  例:1. The man is a teacher. She married him.

  →她嫁的对象是位老师。) →

  (那位你要见的女人刚刚离开办公室。)

  (2)受格which→先行词(事物;动物)+受格关系代名词which +主词+动词+ (介系词)

  例:1. Here is a magazine. I borrowed it from Miss Wang.

  →Here is a magazine which I borrowed from Miss Wang. (这里有一本我向王老师借的杂志。) → Remember the advice which I gave you. (记得我给你的忠告。)

  (3)受格that→先行词(人;事物;动物)+受格关系代名词that +主词+动词+(介系词)

  例:1. The little girl is very cute. My dad is talking to her.

  →

  (正和我爸聊天的小女孩非常可爱。) 我们午餐吃的三明治不好吃。) 特别注意的关系代名词

  (1)受格的关系代名词可省略

  例:Soccer is the sport which / that I like (the) best.

  →Soccer is the sport I like (the )best. (足球是我最喜欢的运动。)

  (2)介系词+受格关系代名词

  例:1. The woman whom / that you are speaking of is our principal.

  →The woman you are speaking of is our principal.

  →你提到的女人是我们的校长。)

  42

  ※介系词放关系代名词前, 关代不可用that, 也不可省略。

  →The train lam waiting for is now half an hour late.

  →The train for which I am waiting is now half an hour late.

  (我在等的这班火车现在已经误点半小时了。)

  (3)关系代名词只用that

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义113

  例:Today is the coldest day (that) we've ever experienced. (今天是我们经历过最寒冷的一天。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义114

  例:Kenny was the first boy that rushed out of the classroom. (肯尼是首位冲出教室的男孩)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义115

  例:Take a look at the boy and his dog that are coming this way. (看看朝这边走来的男孩和他的狗。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义116

  例:l. Who that has seen the photos of starving children does not want to help them?

  (在看过那些受饥饿的小孩照片之后有谁不想帮助他们的吗?)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义117

  你遗留的火车上的袋子是那一个?)

  例:1. All (that) / What students have to do is (to) study hard. (学生必须做的事就是用功读书。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义118

  她拥有每样身为女人渴望拥有的东西。) 例:l. He was the only one that trusted me. (他是唯一相信我的人。)

  这正是我一直在找的小说。)

  ※口诀:1. 最高级、序数、人+物、避免重复。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义119

  2. all, no, every, any, the??

  (4)限定用法及非限定用法

  例:They had two daughters who became actresses.

  (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义120

  他们有两位当了演员的女儿。) →句中未提到女儿的总数

  , 仅有使句子连贯的功能

  例:They had two daughters, who became actresses.

  (他们有两位女儿, 都当了演员。) →明确地表明只有两位女儿

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义121

  )

  2. My brother, who is a dentist, is studying in the US. (我的哥哥是位牙医, 现在正在美国进修。)

  (5)关系代名词的同义表现

  ①名词+主格关系代名词+动词→名词+现在分词(主动)

  43

  例:There is a notice that says, No parking.

  →There is a notice saying, No parking. (有个告示牌上面写着禁止停车。)

  ②名词+主格关系代名词+be动词+过去分词→名词+过去分词(被动)

  例:This is a cake which was made by Mrs. White.

  →这是由怀特太太所做的蛋糕。)

  ③名词+who +have / has / had... →名词+ with / having...

  例:She is a girl who has blond hair.

  →→她是位有金发的女孩。)

  修饰名词的字、片语、子句

  (1)置于名词前的形容词、分词

  ①形容词+名词→形容词一般多位于名词前

  例:a red flower (一朵红花)

  ② 现在分词+名词→单独一个字的现在分词位于名词前, 表进行或主动。 例:a blooming flower (→朵盛开的花)

  ③ 过去分词+名词→单独一个字的过去分词位于名词前, 表完成或被动。 例:a fallen flower (一朵落花)

  (2)置于名词后的形容词、形容词片语、形容词子句

  ①~thing / ~body +形容词

  例:something interesting (某件有趣的事)

  ②名词+形容词片语→由介系词、分词、不定词引导

  例:l. The pen on the desk is mine. (书桌上的笔是我的。)

  2. Will you give me a pen ??to write with?

  ?which I can write with?(请你给我一枝笔写字好吗?)

  3. He drew a cat sleeping on the chair. (他画了一只在椅子上睡觉的猫。)

  4. This is the window broken by Tom. (这就是汤姆打破的窗户。)

  ③名词+形容词子句→由关系代名词引导

  例:Do you think the lady who wears a dress is pretty?

  →Do you think the lady wearing a dress is pretty?

  →Do you think the lady in a dress is pretty? (你认为穿着洋装的女士漂亮吗?)

  Unit 5 间接问句

  直接问句及间接问句

  (1)直接问词→疑问词(句首)+??be动词?主词?

  ?助动词?主词?原形动词?

  例:Who is that tall girl? (那高个子的女孩是谁?) (be动词+主词)

  ?be动词??

  (2)间接问句→主要子句+疑问词+主词+?.

  ?一般动词??.

  ??助动词?原形动词??.

  例:I have no idea who that tall girl is. (我不知道那高个子的女孩是谁。)(主饲+ be动词) ※间接问句句尾的标点符号, 以主要子句为准。

  间接问句的形成

  (1) be动词→疑问词(句中)+主词+be动词

  44

  例:1. What is this? (这是什么?)

  . (我不知道这是什么。)

  2. Who 站在门口的女孩是谁?)

  (动词+主词) ? (你知道站在门口的女孩是谁吗?)

  (主词 + 动词)

  ※修饰主词的分词片语, 必须跟着主词移到be动词前。

  3. Where 你和你妈要去哪里?)

  (be动词+主词)

  告诉我你和你妈要去哪里。)

  (主词+ be动词)

  (2)一般动词→疑问词(句中)+主词+注意时态表现)'

  例:1. 她住在哪里?)

  ↓去掉

  Let me know where 让我知道她住在哪里。) 他们何时前往澳洲?)

  ↓去掉

  We'd like to know when 我们想要知道他们是何时前往澳洲的。)

  2. Why 你为何没搭公交车上班呢?)

  请你告诉我你为何没搭公交车上班呢。) '

  (3)助动词→疑问词(句中)+主词+助动词(can, will... ) +原形动词

  例:l. How can the little boy move the large box? (这小男孩如何能搬动这大箱子?)

  我不知道这小男孩如何能搬动这大箱子。)

  2. Please tell me why I must take care of the little girl. (请告诉我为什么我必须照顾这位小女孩。)

  (4)疑问词(即为主词)→疑问词(句中)+be动词/一般动词/助动词

  例:1. What happened to you? (你怎么了?)

  Will you let me know what happened to you? (请你让我知道你怎么了, 好吗?)

  2. Who broke the antique vase? (谁打破那个古董花瓶?)

  Do you know who broke the antique vase? (你知道是谁打破那个古董花瓶吗?)

  3. Nobody knows who cheated on the exam. (没有人知道谁在考试时作弊。)

  特别注意的间接问句

  (1)含do you think I guess / say /imagine之间接问句

  ) ?Who will be sent to the United States? (谁会被派去美国呢?例:1. ? Do you think??

  Do you think who will be sent to the United States? ()

  →Who do you think will be sent to the United States? (√) (你认为谁会被派去美国呢?) →I think it will be Tom. (我认为是汤姆。)

  )?What time will the class begin? (这堂课是几点开始的?2. ? Do you say??

  Do you say what time the class will, begin? ()

  →What time do you say the class will begin? (√) (你说这堂课是几点开始的?)

  →It will begin at eight. (八点开始。)

  比较:l. Do you know what the answer is? (你知道答案是什么吗?)

  →Yes. I do. / No, I don’t (是的, 我知道。/不, 我不知道。)

  2. What do you think the answer is? (你认为答案是什么?)

  →I think the answer is A. (我认为答案是A。)

  (2)名词片语→疑问词+to V

  45

  例:1. The poor girl doesn't know what she has to do. (这可怜的女孩不知道她该做什么。)

  →

  ?where to go? (该去哪??)

  2. Do you know ??who to ask? (该问谁?)

  how to do it? (该如何做?

  ?)

  ??what to do? (该怎么办?)

  3. Who to bell the cat is a big problem. (谁来担当这危险的任务是个大问题。)

  ※担当危险任务→bell the cat

  ※名词片语→疑问词+ to V→当主词、补语、受词

  ◎当补语→The problem is who to bell the cat. (问题是谁来担当危险的任务。)

  ◎当受词→We don't know who to bell the cat. (我们不知道谁来担当危险任务。)

  (3)不含疑问词的问句(即Yes / No问句)之间接问句, 须用Whether / if (是否)引导

  例:l. Will he buy the convertible? (他要买那辆敞篷车吗?)

  →I don't know whether / if he will buy the convertible. (我不知道他是否要买那辆敞篷车。)

  2. Is it convenient for you to drive me home? (你载我回家方便吗?)

  →I'd like to know whether / if it is convenient for you to drive me home?

  (我想知道你载我回家是否方便。)

  练习

  1. 你认为人类如何能解决污染问题呢?

  How do you think people can solve pollution problems?

  2. 我不知道他们何时会达成目标。

  I don't know when they will achieve the goal.

  3. 请告诉我们哪里可以买到手工皮鞋。

  Please tell us where to buy hand-made shoes.

  4. 让我知道他是不是爱上Amy了。

  Let me know whether / if he fell in love with Amy.

  5. 你猜谁要举办音乐会?

  Who do you guess will hold a concert?

  Unit 6 连接词

  连接词的功能

  连接词连接单字、片语或子句。

  例:1. Splendid! The dancers splayed and did the splits. (好极了!舞者们张开双臂及劈腿。)

  2. Do you write with your right hand or your left hand? (你用右手写字或左手写字?)

  3. I always rely on him when I am in trouble. (当我有麻烦时, 我总是依赖他。)

  连接词总类

  1. 对等连接词→连接同词性的单字、片语、子句。

  (1) and (和 ;并且;那么)

  例:1. Being a college student and studying at college are two different things.

  (当个大学生和在大学求学是两回事。)

  2. We can have fresh air and enjoy beautiful scenery.

  46

  (我们可以呼吸新鲜的空气和享受美丽的风景。)

  3. Go straight, and you will see the restaurant on you right.

  (直直走, 那么你会看见那家餐厅在你右手边。)

  (2) but (但是)

  例:1. The little girl fell down but didn't cry. (那小女孩跌倒了, 但没有哭。)

  2. My parents agree to let me go out with you, but they ask me to come home before 12:00.

  (我爸妈答应我跟你出去, 但是他们要求我必须在12点前回家。)

  (3) or (或者;否则)

  例:1. What would you prefer, coffee or tea? (你较喜欢哪一种, 咖啡或茶?)

  2. You can turn coal into diamonds or sand into computer chip.

  (你可将碳转变成钻石或是将沙子转变成计算机芯片.。)

  3. The fair must be held, or the books won't be sold out in a week.

  (书展一定要办, 否则这些书无法在一周内卖完。)

  注意:祈使句, and (那么)+主词+动词??

  祈使句, or (否则)+主词+动词??

  例:1. Go to the shop at once, or it will be closed. (立刻去那家店, 否则它要打烊了。)

  2. Go to that bookstore, and you'll find foreign books. (去那家书店, 你会找到外文书。)

  (4) so (所以)→只能连接两子句。

  例:1. Some people never think of the future, so they only use things once and throw them away.

  (有些人不曾想过未来,所以他们东西只用一次就丢弃。)

  2. We share this world, so each of us has to do our part.

  (我们共享这个世界, 所以我们每个人都必须各尽本份。)

  ※对等相关连接词→both… and… (??和??两者都)

  not only… but also… (不仅??而且??)

  either… or… (不是??就是??)

  例:1. She hopes both to lose weight and shape up by jogging. (她希望藉由慢跑减重和塑形。)

  2. He not only broke the machine but also put the blame on me.

  (他不仅弄坏机器, 还把过错推到我头上。)

  3. You can pay either in cash or by check. (你可用现金或支票付款。)

  4. Both French and German are spoken in this region. (这个区域说法文和德文。)

  Not only I but also they are angry with you. (不仅我连他们也生你的气。)

  Either you or I am in the right. (不是你就是我对。)

  Neither my mother nor I was listening to the news on TV. (不是我妈也不是我在收听电视新闻。) Mr. Wang as well as the students was late for class. (不仅学生就连王老师上课也迟到。)

  2. 从属连接词→引导名词子句或副词子句。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义122

  that或whether / if引导, 在句中当主词, 补语, 受词。

  例:I know her name. (我知道她的名字。)

  I know that she is Cathy. (我知道她是凯西。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义123

  )

  when, if…等连接词引导, 和一般的副词一样, 表示时间, 条件??等。

  例:It snows in winter. (冬天会下雪。)

  It snows when winter comes. (冬天来临会下雪。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义124

  我不知道我爸妈明天会不会回家。)

  2. If my parents come back home, I will call you up. (如果我爸妈明天回来, 我会打电话给你。)

  (1) 名词子句→that +主词+动词

  47

  例:1. She will come. It is almost certain.

  →That she will come is almost certain.

  →It is almost certain that she will come. (几乎可确定她会来。)

  2. That the world's climate is getting hotter is beyond any doubt.

  →It is beyond any doubt that the world's climate is getting hotter. (全球气候温暖化是无庸置疑的。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义125

  be动词后, 当主词补语, that不可省略

  例:The trouble is that I have no money with me. (

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义126

  麻烦的事是我身上没有钱。)

  , 当受词, that可省略

  例:l. He says (that) he is thinking of moving his office from Taipei to Kaohsumg.

  (他说他正考虑将办公室从台北搬到高雄去。)

  2. I can't believe (that) he has made the same mistake three times.

  (我真不敢相信他已经犯了三次相同的错误。)

  ※若有and、but…等连接两that子句时, 第1个that可省略, 第2个that不可以省略。

  例:Mother said (that) you stayed home and that you had to do all housework.

  (妈妈说你待在家并且说你必须做所有家事。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义127

  a rumor that + S+V及news that +S+V中的that子句和a rumor / news为同位语。

  例:I heard the news that a new student would join our class. (我听到消息说我们班将有一名新生。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义128

  (2) 名词子句→if/ whether (是否)+主词+动词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义129

  例:Whether he will come or not makes no difference.

  →It makes no difference whether he will come or not. (他是否会来没有差别。)

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义130

  例:The question is whether I should buy it or rent it. (问题是我应该买它呢还是租用它呢。)

  whether+ S+V当受词可以等于if +S+V。

  例:He asked me if / whether it would be fine tomorrow. (他问我明天是否是好天气。)

  (3) 表示“时间”的副词子句→由after, as, before, since,until, till, when, while, as soon as等引导。

  例:1. After I tell you the answers, please repeat them after me loudly.

  (在我告诉你们答案之后请大声的跟我复诵一遍。)

  2. It's a custom to take off the shoes before you go into a Chinese man's house.

  (在进中国人的屋子前先脱掉鞋子是一种习俗。)

  3. Heat the cookies at 350 degrees until they turn light brown.

  (以350度来加热饼干直到呈现淡棕色。)

  4. When you take medicine, be sure to follow the doctor's directions below.

  (当你吃药时, 务必遵照下述医师的指示。)

  5. While I was sleeping, there was noise outside.

  →There was noise outside while I was sleeping.

  (当我正在睡觉时, 外面起了一阵噪音。)

  ※while所引导的从属子句常使用进行式。

  (4) 表示“地点”的副词子句→由where引导。

  例:1. Where there is a will, there is a way. (有志者事竟成。)

  2. Put it back where it was. (将它放回原来的地方。)

  (5) 表示“原因;理由”的副词子句→由because, since, as引导。语气强弱的顺序为because since as。 48

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义131

  ※because和so不可同时出现。

  例:Because I was exhausted, I didn't go. (因为我累了, 所以我没去。)

  = I didn't go because I was exhausted.

  = I was exhausted, so I didn't go.

  例:1. I always like to buy cakes in that bakery because they are 20% off after eight o'clock in the evening.

  (我总是喜欢到那家面包店买蛋糕, 因为晚上8点后打8折。)

  2. We ate lunch in the garden since it was nice and cool outside.

  (因为室外天气宜人凉爽, 我们在花园吃午餐。)

  3. There are few students on the bus as it is Sunday today.

  (因为今天是星期天, 公交车上几乎没有学生。)

  ※since (自从), as (当??时候;虽然)

  ※下列情况必用because。

  例:1. Why is he absent? (他为何缺席?)

  →Because he is ill. (因为他生病。)

  2. He is absent not because he is busy but because he is ill. (他缺席不因为他忙碌, 而是因为他生病。)

  (6) 表示“条件”的副词子句→if (如果)

  例:If you keep eating fast food, you'll taste the bitter fruits before long.

  (如果你继续吃快餐, 不久你将尝到苦果。):

  (7) 表示“让步”的副词子句→though, although (虽然), whether… or not (不论是否)

  例:1. Though Taiwan is small, I love it. After all, it is my homeland!

  = Taiwan is small, but I love it. After all, it is my homeland.

  (台湾虽然不大, 但是我爱它。毕竟, 它是我的祖国。)

  ?形容词???※as (虽然)??副词? ?as ? S ?V?, S?V?

  ?名词 (前无冠词)???

  例:1. Although she is a teacher, she isn't patient with children.

  →Teacher as she is, she isn't patient with children. (虽然她是老师, 但是对小朋友却没有耐心。)

  2. Whether it rains or not, the final games will be played. (不论下雨与否, 决赛都将举行。)

  (8) 表示“结果;目的”的副词子句→so...that… (如此??以致于) so that (所以)

  例:1. It was so heavy that we couldn't move it.

  →It was too heavy for us to move. (这个很重我们搬不动。)

  2. It was such a cool hairstyle that I want to imitate it.

  →It was so cool a hairstyle that I want to imitate it. (好酷的发型, 我想要模仿。)

  3. Their house burned down, so (that) they had nowhere to live. (他们的家烧毁了, 所以无处可住。)

  Unit 7 介系词

  介系词的功能

  (1)当形容词

  例:Look at the sentences on the blackboard. (看黑板上的句子。)

  (2)当副词

  例:Write the sentences on the blackboard. (把句子写在黑板上。)

  表示时间的介系词

  (1) at/on/in (在??)

  at+时刻、年龄、正午、半夜

  on+特定的日期、星期~、~月~日.

  in+年、月、周、季节, 早上、下午、晚上

  49

  例:1. I'll see her in the afternoon. (我下午会和他碰面。) 我星期天下午会和他碰面。) 我们7月去过动物园。) 我们7月3日去过动物园。) 他们在早上抵达。) 他们在10月10日早上抵达。) 她11岁。) 我的英文课在8点开始。) 我的英文课在春天开始。)

  ※时间名词前加last (上~), next (下~), this (这~)时, 不可再搭配介系词。 例:l. He's going to leave next week. (他下星期要离开了。)

  2. I’ve met him this morning. (我今天早上和他碰面了。)

  (2)before (在??之前) / by (在??之前)

  before→指在某时间之前

  by→指动作完成的期限

  ?at ??at exactly???在10

  例:Please arrive??by ??not later than??点

  ?10 o'clock. (请??

  ?最晚10点??抵达。)

  ??before ??earlier than?????在10点前??

  (3)in (经过??之后) / within (在??之内)

  in→表示经过的时间

  within→表示在时间期限之内

  例:1. I will be back in a few days. (我过几天回来。)

  2. He will come back within an hour. (他一小时之内会回来。)

  (4)for (持续) / during (在??期间)

  for→表示动作或状态持续的时间长度

  during→表示在某段时间当中

  例:l. They'll stay for a few days. (他们会停留几天。)

  2. I'll take him to that place during his stay. (在他停留期间我会带他去那地方。)

  (5)from (从??) / since (从??)

  from→表示动作开始的时间点, 常用于现在式、过去式、未来式

  since→表示动作从过去某时间开始, 持续到现在, 常用于现在完成式 例:l. He works from Monday to Friday. (他工作从星期一到星期五。)

  2. I have been busy since yesterday. (我从昨天就很忙。)

  表示地点的介系词

  (l) at / in

  at→表示确切的地点

  in→表示大范围的地点

  例:l. The train stopped at Taipei Station. (火车停在台北车站。)

  2. This book is published in Paris. (这本书在巴黎出版。)

  ※in+都市名、国名 on+街名 at+门牌号码

  ??台北?

  例:He lives ?in Taipei.

  ?on Roosevelt Road. (他住在?

  ??罗斯福路??。)

  ?at 75 Roosevelt Road.??罗斯福路75号??

  (2)on、above、over (在??上) / under、below (在??下)

  on→表示一样东西只接触另一样东西的部分表面

  above→表示不接触而高于某表面, 亦可用over

  over→表示接触到某表面的全部

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义132

  50

  ※under为over的相反词, below为above的相反词

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义133

  例:1. There is a book on the desk. (书桌上有一本书。)

  Look at the picture on the wall. (看墙上的画。)

  There are several flies on the ceiling. (天花板上有几只苍蝇。)

  2. She held an umbrella over (= above) her daughter's head. (她撑把伞在她女儿头上。)

  3. He spread a cloth over the table. (他在餐桌上铺了一块布。)

  4. The basketball is under the chair. (篮球在椅子底下。)

  5. There is usually a supermarket below a department store. (在百货公司底下通常有超市。)

  (3)between、among (在??之间)

  between→在两者之间

  among→在三者(或三者以上)之间

  例:l. Mr. White sat between his wife and daughter. (怀特先生坐在他太太和女儿之间。)

  2. She failed to find his little brother among the crowd. (她未能在人群中找到他小弟弟。)

  (4)near (在??附近), by (在??旁), beside (在??旁), around (在??四周)

  by→表示前后、左右的位置关系

  beside→表示左右的位置关系

  例:1. There is a good restaurant near my house. (我家附近有一家不错的餐厅。)

  2. He was sitting by the window. (他正坐在窗边。)

  3. Nobody wanted to sit beside Nancy. (没人想坐在南西旁边。)

  4. There are many students around the tree. (在树的四周有许多学生

  (5)in front of, in the front of (在??之前) / in back of, in the back of (在??之后

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义134

  )

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义135

  ※behind (在????之后)也是in front of的相反词

  例:l. There is a tall tree in front of the classroom. (教室前有一棵大树。)

  2. There is a blackboard in the front of the classroom. (教室前有一面黑板。)

  3. He stood behind his master. (他站在他主人后面。)

  behind (在??之后)→表示时间、地点

  before (在??之前)→表示时间

  例:A car has stopped before the store. ()

  A car has stopped in front of the store. (√) (一辆车已停在商店前。)

  (6)along (沿着)、across (穿越)、through (通过

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义136

  )

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义137

  51

  例:1. Let’s take a walk along the river. (我们沿着河散步吧。)

  2. He went across the street. (他穿越马路。)

  3. Our train is running through a tunnel. (我们的火车正穿越隧道。)

  (7)from(从??), to(到??), for(前往??), toward(朝着??)

  例:1. She went to the station. (她去了车站。) She went toward the station. (她朝着车站走去。)

  →并不一定到达车站

  2. They've left for England. (他们已前往英国。)

  3. We started from Taipei. (我们从台北出发。)

  (8)into(向??里面), out of (在??之外

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义138

  )

  例:1. Mary hurried into her room. (玛丽匆忙进入她的房间。)

  2. I jumped out of the bed. (我从床上跳起来。)

  重要的介系词

  (1) in

  1. 在??(地) 例:Tom lives in New York. (汤姆住在纽约。)

  2. 在??(时) 例:I have never seen snow in my life. (我一生不曾看过雪。)

  3. 在??(时)之后 例:She will get well in a week or so. (大约一周之后她就会康复。)

  4. 用??(语言、材料) 例:Sign your name in English. (用英语签名。)

  5. 在??(状态中) 例:I am always in good health. (我一直很健康。)

  6. 穿戴着?? 例:I don't like the man in the red tie. (我不喜欢那打红领带的男人。)

  (2) on

  1. 在??上面 例:Don't sit on the floor. (不要坐在地板上。)

  2. 在??(时) 例:I was born on October 3. (我出生在十月三日。)

  3. 在??(状态中) 例:The house is on fire. (那房子在燃烧中。)

  4. 关于 例:Miss Wang read a book on animals. (王老师看了一本关于动物的书。)

  5. 依靠??(方法;手段) 例:Chinese live on rice. (中国人以米食为生。)

  (3) at

  1. 在??(地) 例:I met him at the corner of the street. (我在那条街的转角处碰到他。)

  2. 在??(时) 例:Our school begins at 8:20. (我们从八点二十分开始上课。)

  3. 对准??(目标) 例:The boy threw the bone at the dog. (男孩把骨头朝那只狗丢去。)

  4. 听到、看到 (表原因) 例:I was surprised at the news. (听到那消息我很惊讶。)

  5. 以??(速度、温度、价格) 例:I sold my car at a high price. (我高价卖掉我的车。)

  (4) for

  1. ??之久(表时间) 例:I have been here for three hours. (我在这里待了3小时之久。)

  2. 以??而言 例:The girl is tall for her age. (就这女孩的年龄而言, 她算是高的。

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义139

  )

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义140

  谢孟媛-初级英文文法-讲义141

  52

  3. 给??(人) 例:The present is for you. (这礼物是给你的。)

  4. 前往 例:I took the tram for Keelung. (我搭了往基隆的火车。)

  5. 由于;为了(表原因) 例:The town is famous for its old castle. (这城镇以其古堡而闻名。) ※ A-mei is famous for her good voice. (A-mei以好嗓子闻名。)

  A-mei is famous as a singer. (A-mei以歌手身分闻名。)

  (5) to

  1. 到??(地) 例:All roads lead to Rome. (条条道路通罗马。)

  2. 到??(时) 例:We stayed there to the end of May. (我们在那里待到五月底。)

  3. 对??(表动作的对象) 例:Listen to me. (听我说。)

  4. 为了??(表目的) 例:To your health. (祝你健康。)

  (6) with

  1. 和??一起 例:Mix the sugar with the eggs. (将糖加入蛋中搅拌。)

  2. 用??(工具) 例:He cut down the tree with an ax. (他用斧头砍下那棵树。)

  3. 附有?? 例:I saw a house with a red roof. (我看见一间红色屋顶的房子。)

  4. 关于 例:What's the matter with you? (你怎么了?)

  5. 在??身上/手上 例:have little money with me. (我身上只有一点点钱。)

  6. 随着 例:Languages grow and change with time. (语言随时间成长和改变。)

  (7) of

  1. ??的 例:The door of the room is open. (房间的门开着。)

  2. ??当中的 例:She is one of the members. (她是会员之一。)

  3. 以??构成 例:She is wearing a dress of silk. (她穿着丝质的洋装。)

  ※ The desk is made of wood. (这书桌是木制的。)

  Wine is made from grapes. (葡萄酒由葡萄制成。)

  4. ??之量的 例:I drank a cup of coffee at breakfast. (早餐时我喝了一杯咖啡。)

  (8) by

  1. 在??旁边 例:The house is by the roadside. (那房子在路旁。)

  2. 被??(表行为者) 例:She was bitten by a dog. (她被狗咬了。)

  3. 用??(方式;手段) 例:I made money by selling fruit. (我靠卖水果赚钱。)

  4. 不晚于??(表期限) 例:I have to be home by ten o'clock. (十点前我必须到家。)

  5. 乘坐??(交通工具) 例:We go to school by bus (=on a bus). (我们搭公交车上学。)

  6. 以??为准 例:What time is it by your watch? (你的表现在几点?)

  7. 只差??(表差异或程度) 例:He is older than I by two years.

  →He is two years older than I. (他比我大两岁。)

  53

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